Very long chain N-3 fatty acids intake and carotid atherosclerosis: an epidemiological study evaluated by ultrasonography.
ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between intake of N-3 fatty acids and incidence of stroke. And, there is a high incidence of stroke in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship between intake of N-3 fatty acids and carotid atherosclerosis in the cross-sectional study. A total of 1920 Japanese, aged over 40 years, received a population-based health examination in 1999. They underwent B-mode carotid ultrasonography to evaluate the carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT). Eating patterns were evaluated by a 105 items food frequency questionnaire. A complete data set was available for 1902 subjects (785 men and 1117 women). The mean eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake in men was 0.32+/-0.23 g/day and in women was 0.31+/-0.20 g/day. The mean docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake in men was 0.52+/-0.34 g/day and in women was 0.49+/-0.29 g/day. With multiple linear regression analysis, after adjustments for age, sex, and total energy intake, intakes of EPA (P < 0.05), DHA (P < 0.05), and docosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.05) were significantly and inversely related to IMT. These data indicate that dietary N-3 fatty acid, especially very long chain N-3 fatty acids, may protect against carotid atherosclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (as essential fatty acids) and their nutritional value for human health. In this review, various sources, nutritional properties, and metabolism routes of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are introduced. Since the conversion efficiency of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) is low in humans, looking for the numerous sources of AA, EPA and EPA fatty acids. The sources include aquatic (fish, crustaceans, and mollusks), animal sources (meat, egg, and milk), plant sources including 20 plants, most of which were weeds having a good amount of LC-PUFA, fruits, herbs, and seeds; cyanobacteria; and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, microalgae, and diatoms).Food Science & Nutrition. 06/2014; 2(5).
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ABSTRACT: Because the diagnosis and treatment of carotid artery disease may reduce the rate of stroke, the aim of this study was to determine whether a diet intervention was associated with incident carotid artery disease. Participants were 48 835 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who were randomly assigned to either the intervention or comparison group in the Women's Health Initiative Diet Modification Trial. Incident carotid artery disease was defined as an overnight hospitalization with either symptoms or a surgical intervention to improve flow. After a mean follow-up of 8.3 years from 1994 to 2005, there were 297 (0.61%) incident carotid artery events. In contrast to the comparison group, the risk of incident carotid disease did not differ from those assigned to the intervention group (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.4). In secondary analysis, there was no significant effect of the intervention on the risk for incident carotid disease during the 5 years of postintervention follow-up from 2005 to 2010 (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.7) and no significant effect during cumulative follow-up from 1994 to 2010 (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.4). Among postmenopausal women, a dietary intervention aimed at reducing total fat intake and encouraging increased intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains did not significantly change the risk for incident carotid artery disease. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611.Stroke 04/2014; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, of which eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the three predominant forms. There has been a plethora of previous research on the effects and associations of fish oil supplementation with various clinical manifestations. While the majority of this work was previously done on EPA and DHA, emerging research has begun to elucidate the specific role that DPA plays in these physiological processes and its differences with the other omega-3 fatty acids. The purpose of this review is to focus on the new studies undertaken with DPA. This review summarizes the biochemical mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of DPA before focusing on its effects in cardiovascular disease, immune function, and psychiatric and cognitive health. The limited studies point toward a positive role that DPA supplementation can play in these processes and that is separate and distinct from traditional supplementation with DHA and EPA.F1000Research. 01/2013; 2:256.