Very long chain N-3 fatty acids intake and carotid atherosclerosis - An epidemiological study evaluated by ultrasonography

Kurume University, Куруме, Fukuoka, Japan
Atherosclerosis (Impact Factor: 3.99). 10/2004; 176(1):145-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.04.020
Source: PubMed


Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between intake of N-3 fatty acids and incidence of stroke. And, there is a high incidence of stroke in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship between intake of N-3 fatty acids and carotid atherosclerosis in the cross-sectional study. A total of 1920 Japanese, aged over 40 years, received a population-based health examination in 1999. They underwent B-mode carotid ultrasonography to evaluate the carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT). Eating patterns were evaluated by a 105 items food frequency questionnaire. A complete data set was available for 1902 subjects (785 men and 1117 women). The mean eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake in men was 0.32+/-0.23 g/day and in women was 0.31+/-0.20 g/day. The mean docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake in men was 0.52+/-0.34 g/day and in women was 0.49+/-0.29 g/day. With multiple linear regression analysis, after adjustments for age, sex, and total energy intake, intakes of EPA (P < 0.05), DHA (P < 0.05), and docosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.05) were significantly and inversely related to IMT. These data indicate that dietary N-3 fatty acid, especially very long chain N-3 fatty acids, may protect against carotid atherosclerosis.

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    • "Unlike fish, red meat is the main dietary source of DPA, which accumulates in mammalian muscle (Givens and Gibbs 2006). DPA reduces the risk of atherosclerotic and acute coronary events in middle-aged men and has significant health benefits compared to EPA and DHA in reducing the risk of CVD (Rissanen et al. 2000; Hino et al. 2004; Howe et al. 2006). The fatty acid composition of meat will vary by animal's age, sex, breed, diet, and within the cut of meat (Wood and Enser 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (as essential fatty acids) and their nutritional value for human health. In this review, various sources, nutritional properties, and metabolism routes of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are introduced. Since the conversion efficiency of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) is low in humans, looking for the numerous sources of AA, EPA and EPA fatty acids. The sources include aquatic (fish, crustaceans, and mollusks), animal sources (meat, egg, and milk), plant sources including 20 plants, most of which were weeds having a good amount of LC-PUFA, fruits, herbs, and seeds; cyanobacteria; and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, microalgae, and diatoms).
    Food Science & Nutrition 09/2014; 2(5). DOI:10.1002/fsn3.121
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    • "Indeed, our results are in agreement with studies demonstrating that elevated consumption of total linolenic acid [34] or eicosapentaenoic acid [35] or docosahexaenoic acid [36] is associated with lower prevalence of carotid plaques or lower carotid intima-media thickness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fish consumption is recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, there is a paucity of data concerning the relation between fish consumption and carotid atherosclerosis. We investigated the association between habitual fish consumption and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis, defined as the presence of plaques and/or increased intima-media thickness (>= 0.90 mm), in non-diabetic participants. Nine hundred-sixty-one (range of age: 18-89 yrs; 37.1% males) adult participants without clinically known atherosclerotic disease were randomly recruited among the customers of a shopping mall in Palermo, Italy, and cross-sectionally investigated. Each participant answered a food frequency questionnaire and underwent high-resolution ultrasonographic evaluation of both carotid arteries. Routine laboratory blood measurements were obtained in a subsample of 507 participants. Based on habitual fish consumption, participants were divided into three groups: non-consumers or consumers of less than 1 serving a week (24.0%), consumers of 1 serving a week (38.8%), and consumers of >= 2 servings a week (37.2%). Age-adjusted prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (presence of plaques or intima media thickness >= 0.9 mm) was higher in the low fish consumption group (13.3%, 12.1% and 6.6%, respectively; P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis evidenced that carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.09-1.14), hypertension on pharmacologic treatment (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.16-2.82), and pulse pressure (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.04), while consuming >=2 servings of fish weekly was protective compared with the condition of consumption of <1 serving of fish weekly (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.80). High habitual fish consumption seems to be associated with less carotid atherosclerosis, though adequate interventional trials are necessary to confirm the role of fish consumption in prevention of cardiovascular disease.
    Nutrition Journal 01/2014; 13(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-2 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "In population studies DPA has been associated positively with cardiovascular health. A higher level of DPA in the circulation has been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease [30], and a higher intake of DPA and a higher level of DPA in circulation have been associated with the protection against carotid atherosclerosis [31]. These findings may in part be mediated via the lowered postprandial chylomicronemia, as an increased postprandial plasma TAG level is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases [32] [33] [34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The study of the metabolism of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) in humans has been limited by the unavailability of pure DPA and the fact that DPA is found in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in natural products. In this double blind cross over study, pure DPA and EPA were incorporated in meals served to healthy female volunteers. Mass spectrometric methods were used to study the chylomicron lipidomics. Plasma chylomicronemia was significantly reduced after the meal containing DPA compared with the meal containing EPA or olive oil only. Both EPA and DPA were incorporated into chylomicron TAGs, while there was less incorporation into chylomicron phospholipids. Lipidomic analysis of the chylomicron TAGs revealed the dynamic nature of chylomicron TAGs. The main TAG species that EPA and DPA were incorporated into were EPA/18:1/18:1, DPA/18:1/16:0 and DPA/18:1/18:1. There was very limited conversion of DPA and EPA to DHA and there were no increases in EPA levels during the 5h postprandial period after the DPA meal. In conclusion, EPA and DPA showed different metabolic fates, and DPA hindered the digestion, ingestion or incorporation into chylomicrons of the olive oil present in the meal.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 02/2013; 88(4). DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2013.01.010 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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