Lack of correlation between MMF dose and MPA level in pediatric and young adult cardiac transplant patients: does the MPA level matter?
ABSTRACT To determine the correlation between mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dose and mycophenolic acid (MPA) level as well as its impact on rejection among young cardiac transplant recipients (OHT), trough concentrations of MPA and its metabolite, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), were measured following MMF doses of 1200 mg/m2/d (max 3000 mg/d). Corresponding endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) grades and calcineurin inhibitor levels were recorded with simultaneous MPA/MPAG levels. Correlation coefficients were derived between MMF dose and MPA/MPAG levels. Contingency analysis evaluated the relation between MPA level and EMB score. Twenty-six patients (median age 15.4 years) had 120 MPA/MPAG levels measured. Average MMF dose was 1208.8 mg/m2/d with median MPA and MPAG concentrations: 2.1 (therapeutic: 1.0-3.5 microg/mL) and 48 microg/mL (reference range: 35-100 microg/mL), respectively. Only 50% of patients consistently achieved therapeutic levels with standard dosing. No correlation was found between MMF dose and MPA/MPAG levels. In the presence of therapeutic calcineurin inhibition, EMB grade > or = 2 occurred more with MPA concentrations < 2.5 microg/mL (p = 0.01). In young OHT patients, MMF dose does not correlate with MPA/MPAG levels, and standard MMF dosing fails to consistently achieve 'therapeutic' MPA concentrations. An MPA trough level < 2.5 microg/mL was more frequently associated with EMB grade > or = 2. Concentration rather than dose-driven management is a more prudent strategy when using MMF.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The successful delivery of optimal peri-operative care to pediatric heart transplant recipients is a vital determinant of their overall outcomes. The practitioner caring for these patients must be familiar with and treat multiple simultaneous issues in a patient who may have been critically ill preoperatively. In addition to the complexities involved in treating any child following cardiac surgery, caretakers of newly transplanted patients encounter multiple transplant-specific issues. This chapter details peri-operative management strategies, frequently encountered early morbidities, initiation of immunosuppression including induction, and short-term outcomes.Current Cardiology Reviews 05/2011; 7(2):110-22.
Article: Dose-normalization for exposure to mycophenolic acid and the early clinical outcome in patients taking tacrolimus after heart transplantationAnnals of transplantation: quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society 01/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
Article: Monitoring mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetic parameters in liver transplant recipients: prediction of occurrence of leukopenia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a very powerful immunosuppressive drug used in preventing acute rejection in liver transplantation. However, MMF has some serious side effects, including hematologic and gastrointestinal disorders. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the clinical events and the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in Chinese liver transplant recipients. Sixty-three adult liver transplant recipients receiving 1.0 g of MMF twice daily in combination with tacrolimus were prospectively included. The MPA pharmacokinetic profiles (blood sampling time points: before the dose and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after the dose) were monitored after transplantation. Every clinical event, including acute and MMF-related side effects, was monitored in all patients within 3 months. Two patients (3.2%) had an episode of acute rejection. Forty-two patients (66.7%) had 52 episodes of MMF-related side effects, including leukopenia, diarrhea, and infection. The 0-hour concentration (C(0h)), maximum (peak) concentration (C(max)), and area under the curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC(0-12h)) in patients with side effects were significantly higher than those in patients without side effects (P < 0.05). The thresholds of side effects from receiver operating characteristic analysis were 2 mg/L (sensitivity, 52.4%; specificity, 90.5%) for C(0h), 10 mg/L (sensitivity, 45.2%; specificity, 85.7%) for C(max), and 40 mg h/L (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 61.9%) for AUC(0-12h) (P < 0.05). Leukopenia was discriminated effectively in C(0h) and in C(max) (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate the close relationship between leukopenia and MPA pharmacokinetic parameters in the early period after liver transplantation. C(0h) and AUC(0-12h) of MPA could predict the subsequent occurrence of leukopenia. These values may be used in routine monitoring for MMF therapy.Liver Transplantation 08/2008; 14(8):1165-73. · 3.39 Impact Factor