Lack of correlation between MMF dose and MPA level in pediatric and young adult cardiac transplant patients: does the MPA level matter?
ABSTRACT To determine the correlation between mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dose and mycophenolic acid (MPA) level as well as its impact on rejection among young cardiac transplant recipients (OHT), trough concentrations of MPA and its metabolite, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), were measured following MMF doses of 1200 mg/m2/d (max 3000 mg/d). Corresponding endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) grades and calcineurin inhibitor levels were recorded with simultaneous MPA/MPAG levels. Correlation coefficients were derived between MMF dose and MPA/MPAG levels. Contingency analysis evaluated the relation between MPA level and EMB score. Twenty-six patients (median age 15.4 years) had 120 MPA/MPAG levels measured. Average MMF dose was 1208.8 mg/m2/d with median MPA and MPAG concentrations: 2.1 (therapeutic: 1.0-3.5 microg/mL) and 48 microg/mL (reference range: 35-100 microg/mL), respectively. Only 50% of patients consistently achieved therapeutic levels with standard dosing. No correlation was found between MMF dose and MPA/MPAG levels. In the presence of therapeutic calcineurin inhibition, EMB grade > or = 2 occurred more with MPA concentrations < 2.5 microg/mL (p = 0.01). In young OHT patients, MMF dose does not correlate with MPA/MPAG levels, and standard MMF dosing fails to consistently achieve 'therapeutic' MPA concentrations. An MPA trough level < 2.5 microg/mL was more frequently associated with EMB grade > or = 2. Concentration rather than dose-driven management is a more prudent strategy when using MMF.
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ABSTRACT: Triple drug treatment consisting of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), in a standard dose of 2 g daily, combined with cyclosporine (CsA) and prednisone, has become the standard immunosuppressive regimen after kidney transplantation in many centers. The need for therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolic acid (MPA) has not yet been established. Several drug interactions with MMF are known. We investigated the influence of CsA withdrawal on MPA trough levels in renal transplant patients. Fifty-two patients were treated with 1 g of MMF twice daily, and prednisone and CsA targeted between 125 and 175 ng/ml for 6 months after transplantation. At 6 months after transplantation, 19 patients were randomized for continuation of triple therapy (group A), 19 patients discontinued CsA (group B), and 14 patients discontinued prednisone (group C). We compared 12-hr fasted MPA trough levels at 6 and 9 months after transplantation within and between these groups. MPA trough levels during treatment with CsA, MMF, and prednisone were significantly lower than those during treatment with MMF and prednisone only (group B); median levels were 1.87 mg/L (range: 0.56-5.27) vs. 3.16 mg/L (range: 0.32-7.78), respectively (P=0.002). MPA trough levels in groups A and C did not change between 6 and 9 months after transplantation; group A median levels were 1.87 (range: 0.31-4.32) vs. 1.53 mg/L (range: 0.36-3.70), and group C median levels were 1.62 (range: 0.69-10.34) vs. 1.79 mg/L (range: 0.54-6.00), respectively. At 9 months after transplantation, patients in whom CsA was discontinued had higher MPA trough levels as compared with patients who continued the use of triple therapy (P=0.001) or patients in whom steroids were withdrawn (P=0.014). A significant increase of MPA trough levels was found after discontinuation of CsA (6 months after transplantation), resulting in almost a doubling of MPA trough levels at 9 months after transplantation. This resulted in increased MPA levels in patients without CsA as compared to MPA levels in patients continuing triple therapy or discontinuing prednisone.Transplantation 12/1999; 68(10):1603-6. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Steroids have been shown to induce the hepatic glucuronyltransferase (GT) expression enhancing the activity of uridine diphosphate-GT, the enzyme responsible for mycophenolic acid (MPA) metabolism. The impact of steroids on MPA pharmacokinetics, however, has not been investigated to date. As a part of a steroid-sparing clinical trial, we studied the effect of steroids on MPA bioavailability in 26 kidney transplant recipients. Despite that the MMF dose did not change significantly with time, dose-normalized MPA AUC0-12h was lower during the first month (triple therapy, high doses of steroids) than at month 6 post-surgery (triple therapy, low maintenance dose of steroids (32.94 +/- 10.98 vs. 50.87 +/- 22.37 microg/mL. h; P < 0.01). During the steroid tapering and withdrawal phase (from month 6 to 21 post-Tx), plasma MPA trough and peak concentration as well as AUC0-12h progressively increased, while plasma MPA clearance and MPAG (the major MPA metabolite) trough levels declined. Renal function was stable throughout. Since cyclosporine A (CsA) may interfere with MPA pharmacokinetics, MPA and CsA also were measured in an additional control group of 12 kidney transplant patients at month 21 post-Tx who were still on triple therapy (MMF, CsA and steroids). Despite a similar CsA exposure, the control group had a significantly lower MPA AUC0-12h and higher MPAG trough concentration than patients on dual therapy at month 21 post-Tx. These findings indicate that steroids interfere with MPA bioavailability, and that discontinuation of the drug results in higher MPA exposure, which may compensate at least in part for the lower immunosuppressive level achieved with the remaining dual therapy with CsA and MMF.Kidney International 09/2002; 62(3):1060-7. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recommended dosage for mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in combination with cyclosporin (CyA) for pediatric kidney transplant recipients is 600 mg/m(2) twice daily (b.i.d.). We recently published pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MMF in combination with tacrolimus (FK506): in order to keep the mycophenolic acid (MPA) pre-dose trough concentration between 2 and 5 microg/ml and to avoid side effects, mean MMF doses were reduced to 300 mg/m(2) b.i.d. In order to investigate whether this striking difference was due to alterations of MPA clearance by CyA or FK506, we analyzed PK profiles from 13 patients who received MMF without CyA or FK506, and compared these data with 14 patients who received a combination of MMF and FK506 and 15 patients who received MMF and CyA. Mean area under the curve (AUC) in all PK profiles was 61.9+/-23.8 microgxh/ml. Although the AUCs did not differ between the groups, the dose per square meter was significantly lower in patients receiving concomitant FK506 compared with CyA, and the dose-normalized AUC was significantly higher. The MMF doses were 1,158+/-301 mg/m(2) per day in the CyA group, 555+/-289 mg/m(2) per day in the tacrolimus group, and 866+/-401 mg/m(2) per day in the group without concomitant calcineurin inhibitor treatment. The apparent clearance of MPA is reduced in combination with tacrolimus. The reason for this remains unknown. There was a trend towards lower dose-normalized AUCs in the CyA group compared with the group without calcineurin inhibitor treatment. We conclude that concomitant medication alters the clearance of MPA. It is noteworthy that there was substantial interindividual variation, despite the rather marked differences between the groups, and therefore we recommend starting MMF in combination with CyA at a dose of 600 mg/m(2) b.i.d., in combination with tacrolimus at a dose of 300 mg/m(2) b.i.d., and without a calcineurin inhibitor at a dose of 500 mg/m(2) b.i.d., and adjusting doses using therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA.Pediatric Nephrology 03/2000; 14(2):100-4. · 2.94 Impact Factor