Juxtaaortic counterpulsation: comparison with intraaortic counterpulsation in an animal model of acute heart failure.
ABSTRACT This study was designed to compare the effects of juxtaaortic balloon counterpulsation (JABC), performed in ascending aorta and the aortic arch, with those yielded by intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) in descending aorta, in experimental animals during induced cardiac failure. JABC was achieved with a manufactured Dacron prosthesis and a balloon pump placed between the prosthesis and the wrapped aorta. JABC resulted in a significant increase of cardiac output (from 2.33+/-0.82 to 2.61+/-1.12 L/min, p < 0.05), cardiac index (from 0.071+/-0.025 to 0.080+/-0.033 L/min/kg, p < 0.05) and diastolic pressure augmentation evaluated through diastolic and systolic areas beneath the aortic pressure curve (DABAC/SABAC) index (from 0.94+/-0.21 to 1.10+/-0.33, p < 0.01). End diastolic aortic pressure showed a significant decrease with JABC (from 31.90+/-7.09 to 27.83+/-9.72 mm Hg, p < 0.05). A close association between percentage of DABAC/SABAC increases obtained with IABC and JABC was observed (r2 = 0.67; p < 0.001). Counterpulsation obtained by a juxtaaortic catheter placed in the arch and the ascending wrapped aorta results in an effective hemodynamic improvement comparable with that achieved by an intraaortic catheter in open chest sheep.
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ABSTRACT: An adventitia dependent regulation of the vascular smooth muscle tone has been described. However, if the adventitia plays an active role on arterial wall biomechanical behaviour and functions remains to be established. Our aim was to characterize the influence of adventitia on arterial wall mechanical properties and the arterial conduit and buffer functions. Ovine brachiocephalic arteries were studied in vivo (n = 8) and in vitro (with null tone) in a circulation mock (n = 8). Isobaric, isoflow and isofrequency studies were performed. In each segment, pressure and diameter waves were assessed before and after adventitia removal. From the arterial stress-strain relationship, we derived the elastic and the viscous modulus. The buffering and conduit functions were calculated using the Kelvin-Voigt's time constant and the inverse of the characteristic impedance, respectively. In in vivo studies arterial diameter decreased after adventitia removal (P < 0.05). Elastic and viscous modulus in in vivo studies were significantly higher in adventitia-removed arteries, compared with values in intact vessels (P < 0.05). This behaviour was not observed in in vitro experiments. An impairment of buffer and conduit functions was observed in vivo after adventitia removal (P < 0.05), while both functions remain unchanged in in vitro studies (P > 0.05). Arterial wall viscosity and elasticity were influenced by adventitia removal in in vivo studies, possibly by a smooth muscle-dependent mechanism, since it was not present in in vitro experiments. Adventitia would be involved in a physiological mechanism of arterial wall viscous and elastic properties regulation, that could influence arterial buffering and conduit functions.Acta Physiologica 10/2006; 188(2):103-11. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms that explain intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) effects are not completely understood, and attributing them only to pressure-associated changes in cardiac function would be an oversimplification. Since IABP modifies the aortic and systemic blood-flow pattern, flow-related effects could be expected. To characterize effects of acute heart failure (AHF) on the arterial biomechanics; IABP effects on the arterial biomechanics during AHF, and their potential time-dependence; the association between hemodynamics and biomechanical changes during AHF and IABP. Sheep (n = 6) aortic pressure, flow, and diameter were measured: (1) before (Basal) and (2) 1-3 (HF(1-3)) and 28-30 (HF(28-30)) min after starting halothane to induce AHF; and (3) at specific times (1-3, 14-15 and 28-30 min) during IABP assistance. Calculus: aortic characteristic impedance (Z (c)), beta stiffness (β), incremental (E (INC)) and pressure-strain elastic modulus (E (P)); total arterial compliance (C (G)), total systemic vascular resistance and wave propagation parameters. (1) AHF resulted in an acute increase in aortic and systemic stiffness (HF(28-30) % changes with respect to Basal conditions: β +217%, E (P) +143%, E (INC) +101%, Z (c) +52%, C (G) -13%), associated with the reduction in the aortic blood flow; (2) during AHF IABP resulted in acute beneficial changes aortic and systemic biomechanics (% changes in IABP(1-3) with respect HF(28-30): β -62%, E (P) -68%, E (INC) -66%, Z (c) -38%, C (G) 66%), and in wave propagation parameters, (3) IABP-related changes were time-dependent and associated with changes in aortic blood flow. Aortic and systemic biomechanical and impedance properties are detrimentally modified during AHF, being the changes rapidly reverted during IABP. IABP-related beneficial changes in arterial biomechanics were time-dependent and associated with IABP capability to increase blood flow.Heart and Vessels 11/2011; 27(5):517-27. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) changes pressure and increases the aorta shear stress reversal (SS(R)) and oscillatory (SS(O)) components. Hence, IABP-dependent changes in aortic biomechanics would be expected, because of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone (i.e. flow-induced endothelium-dependent response, related to SS(R) and SS(O) variations) and/or pressure changes. To characterize: (i) the IABP effects on the aortic and global (systemic circulation) biomechanics, analysing their dependence on pressure and VSM basic tone changes and (ii) the relation between the SS(R) and SS(O) and the aortic biomechanical changes associated with the VSM tone variations. Aortic flow, pressure and diameter were measured in eight sheep during basal, augmented and assisted beats (1 : 1 and 1 : 2 IABP modalities). Calculations: (i) aortic effective and isobaric elasticity, viscosity, circumferential stress, pulse wave velocity, shear stress and buffer and conduit functions, (ii) peripheral resistance, global compliance, reflection coefficient and wave propagation times and (iii) the relation between SS(R) and SS(O) and biomechanical changes associated with variations in the aortic VSM tone. Augmented and assisted beats showed: global VSM relaxation pattern (reduced peripheral resistance and reflection coefficient; increased propagation times) and local VSM contraction pattern (increased viscosity; reduced diameter, elasticity and circumferential stress), associated with SS(R) and SS(O), levels and changes. The vascular changes reduced the ventricle afterload determinants, increased the vascular buffer performance and kept the conduit capability. In addition to pressure-dependent changes, IABP determined biomechanical changes related to variations in the VSM tone. The increased SS(R) and SS(O) were associated with the aortic VSM contraction pattern and biomechanical changes.Acta Physiologica 05/2008; 192(4):487-503. · 4.38 Impact Factor