The Functional Mobility Scale (FMS).
ABSTRACT We devised a new Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) to describe functional mobility in children with cerebral palsy, as an aid to communication between orthopaedic surgeons and health professionals. The unique feature of the FMS is the freedom to score functional mobility over three distinct distances, chosen to represent mobility in the home, at school and in the wider community. We examined the construct, content, and concurrent validity of the FMS in a cohort of 310 children with cerebral palsy by comparing the FMS to existing scales and to instrumented measures of physical function. We demonstrated the scale to be both valid and reliable in a consecutive population sample of 310 children with cerebral palsy seen in our tertiary referral center. The FMS was useful for discriminating between large groups of children with varying levels of disabilities and functional mobility and sensitive to detect change after operative intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years.Methods/design: An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child's occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised comparison trial comparing group versus individual models of physiotherapy following intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-A to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy.Trial registration: ACTRN12611000454976.BMC Pediatrics 02/2014; 14(1):35. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of children with orthopaedic conditions in childhood survive to adult life, and there is a need for many of them to transition to adult services. This includes children with disorders such as club foot or developmental dislocation of the hip as well as those with complex syndromic conditions, bone dysplasias or neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy and myelomeningocele. In many tertiary paediatric centres, transition has become a formal process in which clinicians document and communicate the status of patients who have been under their care to ensure a smooth transfer to adult services. The purpose of this report is to support the need for clear communication when children with cerebral palsy transition to adult services and to suggest that this transition represents a significant opportunity for audit and clinical research. Some of the factors to be considered in developing a minimum data sheet for the transfer or transition of children with cerebral palsy to adult services are described. Using the model of adolescents with cerebral palsy transitioning to adult services, orthopaedic surgeons can be encouraged to develop similar methodology and documentation for many other conditions for the purposes of communication, facilitation of transition, audit and clinical research.Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 04/2014;
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ABSTRACT: AimLower limb surgery is often performed in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) to improve walking ability. This mapping review reports on outcome measures used in the published literature to assess surgical results, determine range and frequency of use, and map each measure to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.MethodA mapped review of literature published between 1990 and 2011 was carried out to identify papers reporting the outcomes of lower limb orthopaedic surgery in ambulatory children with CP, aged 0 to 20 years.ResultsA total of 229 published papers met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two outcome measures with known psychometric properties were reported in the 229 papers. Twenty measures assess impairments in body structure and function and were used in 91% of studies. Ten measures assess restrictions in activity and participation and were used in 9% of papers. Two measures assessed quality of life. Since 1997, 29% of papers have used the Gross Motor Function Classification System to describe participants.InterpretationThe body of literature evaluating outcomes of lower limb orthopaedic surgery in CP is small but increasing. There is a need to develop a suite of outcome measures that better reflect outcomes across the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including activity and participation.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 03/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor