Parental pain is not associated with pain in the child: A population based study

Arthritis Research Campaign Epidemiology Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (Impact Factor: 10.38). 10/2004; 63(9):1152-4. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2003.014670
Source: PubMed


Child pain is associated with adverse psychosocial factors. Some studies have shown an association between children's and parental pain. Children may "learn" pain behaviour from their parents.
To examine whether an association exists between parent and child pain, and, if so, whether this relationship persists after adjusting for psychosocial difficulties in the child.
1326 schoolchildren took part in a questionnaire based, cross sectional survey. Parents of study participants were sent a postal questionnaire. Occurrence of body pain was ascertained using blank body manikins and, in children, psychosocial factors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Three child-parent pain relationships were examined: any child pain with any parental pain or with parental widespread pain; and child low back pain with parental low back pain.
The risk of child pain associated with parental reporting of pain was minor, and non-significant. Even when both parents reported widespread pain, the relative risk of pain in the child, after adjusting for age and psychosocial difficulties, was 1.2 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.2).
Parental pain is not a risk for child pain. Pain behaviour is not learned. Rather, child pain is probably attributable to individual factors and the social environment.

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    • "The hypothesis that the prevalence rate would increase with the age of the participants in the samples was confirmed by our results. These findings are in line with those obtained by Balagué et al. [11] and Jones et al. [19]. Balagué et al. [11] reported lifetime prevalences of 16% and 58% for children and adolescents, respectively, and Jones et al. [19] reported lifetime prevalences of 18.2% for 10 years old children and of 65.6% for 16 year old adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Low back pain (LBP) is common in children and adolescents, and it is becoming a public health concern. In recent years there has been a considerable increase in research studies that examine the prevalence of LBP in this population, but studies exhibit great variability in the prevalence rates reported. The purpose of this research was to examine, by means of a meta-analytic investigation, the prevalence rates of LBP in children and adolescents. Methods Studies were located from computerized databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, MedLine, PEDro, IME, LILACS, and CINAHL) and other sources. The search period extended to April 2011. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to report a prevalence rate (whether point, period or lifetime prevalence) of LBP in children and/or adolescents (≤ 18 years old). Two independent researchers coded the moderator variables of the studies, and extracted the prevalence rates. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for the different types of prevalence in order to avoid dependence problems. In each meta-analysis, a random-effects model was assumed to carry out the statistical analyses. Results A total of 59 articles fulfilled the selection criteria. The mean point prevalence obtained from 10 studies was 0.120 (95% CI: 0.09 and 0.159). The mean period prevalence at 12 months obtained from 13 studies was 0.336 (95% CI: 0.269 and 0.410), whereas the mean period prevalence at one week obtained from six studies was 0.177 (95% CI: 0.124 and 0.247). The mean lifetime prevalence obtained from 30 studies was 0.399 (95% CI: 0.342 and 0.459). Lifetime prevalence exhibited a positive, statistically significant relationship with the mean age of the participants in the samples and with the publication year of the studies. Conclusions The most recent studies showed higher prevalence rates than the oldest ones, and studies with a better methodology exhibited higher lifetime prevalence rates than studies that were methodologically poor. Future studies should report more information regarding the definition of LBP and there is a need to improve the methodological quality of studies.
    BMC Pediatrics 01/2013; 13(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-14 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Multiple factors have been found to be correlated with the low back pain including a high body mass index, (> 25 kg/m 2 ), feelings of depression and anxiety, a history of low back pain in siblings or in parents, daily smoking , decreased lumbar extension, decreased flexibility of the hamstrings, decreased endurance and strength of the abdominal and back muscles [15] [25] [32] [39] [50]. Other studies have shown no association between back pain in adolescents and clinical examinations, strength, postural deviations, flexibility, BMI, parental pain or smoking [6] [27] [42]. At the same time, age, gender and physical activity have also been identified as potential contributors to low back pain. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to 1) describe the characteristics of the backpacks used by students 10-18 years of age, 2) describe self reported pain related to backpack use and 3) evaluate the relationship between self reported pain and perceived backpack weight, duration of backpack use and posture when wearing a backpack. A cross-sectional survey of 871 students assessed the features of the backpack carried; the self perceived backpack weight, duration and posture; and any backpack related pain. Results indicate that 99% of students surveyed carry backpacks, 83% carry their backpacks over both shoulders and the presence of adjustable shoulder straps were the most common feature of the backpacks. Half of the students perceive their backpack as heavy and 46% indicate they carry the backpack 10-20 minutes to and from school. Pain attributed to backpack use was reported by 33.5% of the students. Perceived backpack weight, duration of backpack carriage, posture, gender and school district were significantly associated with reported symptoms. Although other socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may contribute to backpack related pain, this study suggests that students perceive a relationship between backpack use, the duration of use, posture and pain supporting the suggestion that simple weight-based controls of backpacks may not be sufficient to eliminate pain perceived as due to backpack use.
    Work 01/2009; 34(4):481-94. DOI:10.3233/WOR-2009-0949 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More than 133 million Americans are living with chronic conditions and this number continues to rise (Partnership for Solutions, 2004); by 2020, it is estimated that 157 million people will suffer from chronic illnesses (Anderson, 2003), a large percentage of whom are in their child-rearing stage of life. Incorporating concepts from family systems and family development theories, this exploratory study examined the impact of maternal chronic physical illness on children. Specifically, it examined the extent to which length of illness and symptom severity of fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis; mother’s age, educational level, and marital status; perceived effects of the illness on parent, child, and parent-child interactions; and parent and child’s perceived availability of and satisfaction with support are related to the child’s parentification. Two-hundred mothers and their oldest child, aged 11-17 years, answered the researcher-developed questionnaire that had been mailed to them; youths also completed the Parentification Questionnaire – Youth. Results indicated that parentification was greater for older children, females more than males, and boys whose mothers had the illness longer. Higher parentification scores also were obtained by children whose mothers reported lower satisfaction with support and who felt more burdened by their illness. Lower parentification scores were obtained by children who reported greater satisfaction with their support, said that they felt closer to their mothers, and whose mothers reported that they felt closer to their children. Implications of these findings for preventative strategies and intervention are discussed and suggestions for future research presented. To date, little attention has been paid to the impact of mothers’ chronic illness on their children. This study suggests that to reduce parentification in children whose mothers are chronically ill, increased support needs to be offered at all levels of the family system - the mother, the child, the mother-child dyad, and the family as a whole. University of New Mexico Student Research Allocations Committee; University of New Mexico Graduate Research Project and Travel Grant University of New Mexico. Division of Individual, Family and Community Education. Shipman, Virginia Nagel, Liza Rifenbury-Murphy, Deborah Hossain, Zia
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