Parental pain is not associated with pain in the child: A population based study

Arthritis Research Campaign Epidemiology Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (Impact Factor: 10.38). 10/2004; 63(9):1152-4. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2003.014670
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Child pain is associated with adverse psychosocial factors. Some studies have shown an association between children's and parental pain. Children may "learn" pain behaviour from their parents.
To examine whether an association exists between parent and child pain, and, if so, whether this relationship persists after adjusting for psychosocial difficulties in the child.
1326 schoolchildren took part in a questionnaire based, cross sectional survey. Parents of study participants were sent a postal questionnaire. Occurrence of body pain was ascertained using blank body manikins and, in children, psychosocial factors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Three child-parent pain relationships were examined: any child pain with any parental pain or with parental widespread pain; and child low back pain with parental low back pain.
The risk of child pain associated with parental reporting of pain was minor, and non-significant. Even when both parents reported widespread pain, the relative risk of pain in the child, after adjusting for age and psychosocial difficulties, was 1.2 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.2).
Parental pain is not a risk for child pain. Pain behaviour is not learned. Rather, child pain is probably attributable to individual factors and the social environment.

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Available from: Gary Macfarlane, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "The hypothesis that the prevalence rate would increase with the age of the participants in the samples was confirmed by our results. These findings are in line with those obtained by Balagué et al. [11] and Jones et al. [19]. Balagué et al. [11] reported lifetime prevalences of 16% and 58% for children and adolescents, respectively, and Jones et al. [19] reported lifetime prevalences of 18.2% for 10 years old children and of 65.6% for 16 year old adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Low back pain (LBP) is common in children and adolescents, and it is becoming a public health concern. In recent years there has been a considerable increase in research studies that examine the prevalence of LBP in this population, but studies exhibit great variability in the prevalence rates reported. The purpose of this research was to examine, by means of a meta-analytic investigation, the prevalence rates of LBP in children and adolescents. Methods Studies were located from computerized databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, MedLine, PEDro, IME, LILACS, and CINAHL) and other sources. The search period extended to April 2011. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to report a prevalence rate (whether point, period or lifetime prevalence) of LBP in children and/or adolescents (≤ 18 years old). Two independent researchers coded the moderator variables of the studies, and extracted the prevalence rates. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for the different types of prevalence in order to avoid dependence problems. In each meta-analysis, a random-effects model was assumed to carry out the statistical analyses. Results A total of 59 articles fulfilled the selection criteria. The mean point prevalence obtained from 10 studies was 0.120 (95% CI: 0.09 and 0.159). The mean period prevalence at 12 months obtained from 13 studies was 0.336 (95% CI: 0.269 and 0.410), whereas the mean period prevalence at one week obtained from six studies was 0.177 (95% CI: 0.124 and 0.247). The mean lifetime prevalence obtained from 30 studies was 0.399 (95% CI: 0.342 and 0.459). Lifetime prevalence exhibited a positive, statistically significant relationship with the mean age of the participants in the samples and with the publication year of the studies. Conclusions The most recent studies showed higher prevalence rates than the oldest ones, and studies with a better methodology exhibited higher lifetime prevalence rates than studies that were methodologically poor. Future studies should report more information regarding the definition of LBP and there is a need to improve the methodological quality of studies.
    BMC Pediatrics 01/2013; 13(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-14 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Multiple factors have been found to be correlated with the low back pain including a high body mass index, (> 25 kg/m 2 ), feelings of depression and anxiety, a history of low back pain in siblings or in parents, daily smoking , decreased lumbar extension, decreased flexibility of the hamstrings, decreased endurance and strength of the abdominal and back muscles [15] [25] [32] [39] [50]. Other studies have shown no association between back pain in adolescents and clinical examinations, strength, postural deviations, flexibility, BMI, parental pain or smoking [6] [27] [42]. At the same time, age, gender and physical activity have also been identified as potential contributors to low back pain. "
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    Work 01/2009; 34(4):481-94. DOI:10.3233/WOR-2009-0949 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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