Silica films with a single-crystalline mesoporous structure.
ABSTRACT Films of mesoporous materials attract broad interest because of their wide applicability in the fields of optics and electronics. Although many of these films have a regular local porous structure, the structural regularity has not been used practically yet because of difficulties in its control on macroscopic scales. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of mesoporous silica films whose porous structure can be described as a single crystal, that is, a long-range order of cage-like pores is maintained over centimetre scales. These films have a three-dimensional hexagonal (space group P6(3)/mmc) porous structure, and the in-plane arrangement of the pores is strictly controlled by a polymeric substrate surface that has been treated by rubbing. This new class of single-crystalline films with mesoscopic periodic structure is a significant breakthrough in bottom-up nanotechnology, and could lead to novel devices, for example, optics in a soft X-ray region, and quantum electronics.
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ABSTRACT: Mesostructured silica waveguide arrays were fabricated with a combination of acidic sol-gel block copolymer templating chemistry and soft lithography. Waveguiding was enabled by the use of a low-refractive index (1.15) mesoporous silica thin film support. When the mesostructure was doped with the laser dye rhodamine 6G, amplified spontaneous emission was observed with a low pumping threshold of 10 kilowatts per square centimeter, attributed to the mesostructure's ability to prevent aggregation of the dye molecules even at relatively high loadings within the organized high-surface area mesochannels of the waveguides. These highly processible, self-assembling mesostructured host media and claddings may have potential for the fabrication of integrated optical circuits.Science 02/2000; 287(5452):465-8. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Use of amphiphilic triblock copolymers to direct the organization of polymerizing silica species has resulted in the preparation of well-ordered hexagonal mesoporous silica structures (SBA-15) with uniform pore sizes up to approximately 300 angstroms. The SBA-15 materials are synthesized in acidic media to produce highly ordered, two-dimensional hexagonal (space group p6mm) silica-block copolymer mesophases. Calcination at 500 degrees C gives porous structures with unusually large interlattice d spacings of 74.5 to 320 angstroms between the (100) planes, pore sizes from 46 to 300 angstroms, pore volume fractions up to 0.85, and silica wall thicknesses of 31 to 64 angstroms. SBA-15 can be readily prepared over a wide range of uniform pore sizes and pore wall thicknesses at low temperature (35 degrees to 80 degrees C), using a variety of poly(alkylene oxide) triblock copolymers and by the addition of cosolvent organic molecules. The block copolymer species can be recovered for reuse by solvent extraction with ethanol or removed by heating at 140 degrees C for 3 hours, in both cases, yielding a product that is thermally stable in boiling water.Science 02/1998; 279(5350):548-52. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ordered mesostructured porous silicas that are also macroscopically structured were created by control of the interface on two different length scales simultaneously. Micellar arrays controlled the nanometer-scale assembly, and at the static boundary between an aqueous phase and an organic phase, control was achieved on the micrometer to centimeter scale. Acid-prepared mesostructures of silica were made with the p6, Pm3n, and the P63/mmc structures in the form of porous fibers 50 to 1000 micrometers in length, hollow spheres with diameters of 1 to 100 micrometers, and thin sheets up to 10 centimeters in diameter and about 10 to 500 micrometers in thickness. These results might have implications for technical applications, such as slow drug-release systems or membranes, and in biomineralization, where many processes are also interface-controlled.Science 09/1996; 273(5276):768-71. · 31.20 Impact Factor