Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is a rare neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential. We studied a large series of phyllodes tumors to define the combination of histological features that are most useful for predicting patient outcome.
A total of 23 cases were obtained from our collective files from 1973 to 2002, and numerous clinical and pathological features were evaluated. A review of the reported cases of phyllodes tumor of the prostate was done.
Patient age was 25 to 86 years (mean 55) and they usually presented with urinary obstructive symptoms and hematuria. The diagnosis was made in 18 tumors by transurethral resection, in 2 by enucleation, in 1 by tumor resection and in 2 by prostatectomy. We analyzed 5 histological features, including cellularity (scale of 1 to 3), cytologic atypia (scale of 1 to 3), the number of mitotic figures per 10 high power fields, the stroma-to-epithelium ratio (low or high) and necrosis (present or absent). This combination of features revealed that 14 cases were low grade phyllodes tumor, 7 were intermediate grade and 2 were high grade with the high grade cases characterized by increased cellularity, severe cytological atypia, more than 5 mitotic figures per 10 high power fields and a high stroma-to-epithelium ratio, indicating stromal overgrowth. Immunohistochemical studies of 8 tumors revealed consistent, intense cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in stromal cells for vimentin and actin, in luminal epithelial cells for prostate specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase and broad-spectrum keratin AE1/AE3, and in basal cells for high molecular weight keratin 34beta-E12. Recurrence was seen in 7 of 14 low grade tumors (50%) and in 1 patient low grade sarcoma emerged with subsequent distant metastases 14 years after initial diagnosis following 5 recurrences. Recurrence was seen in 6 of 7 intermediate grade tumors and low grade sarcoma emerged with subsequent abdominal wall metastases in 1 patient 11 years after initial diagnosis following 3 recurrences. The phyllodes tumor recurred in each patient with high grade tumors with a time to first recurrence of 6 and 0.2 years, respectively. Distant metastases developed in these 2 patients.
Histological grading of prostatic phyllodes tumors is predictive of short-term outcome based on the combination of stromal cellularity, cytological atypia, number of mitotic figures and the stroma-to-epithelium ratio. However, these tumors usually recur after transurethral prostatic resection and they are often locally aggressive with time. The emergence of overt sarcoma and metastatic disease is more frequent than previously recognized. Complete resection at initial diagnosis appears to be indicated.
"This possibility could not be excluded since treatment with control virus was not assessed in the systemic approach. Also, in some tumors, only a small proportion of cells are malignant , , while the rest are murine-derived stromal (not permissive for adenovirus replication) and the latter would remain after oncolysis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic adenoviruses can be engineered for better tumor selectivity, gene delivery and be armed for imaging and concentrating radionuclides into tumors for synergistic oncolysis. We constructed Ad5/3-hTERT-hNIS where replication is controlled by hTERT-promoter. Ad5/3-hTERT-hNIS expresses hNIS for imaging of transgene expression and for treatment of infected tumors by radioiodine. Ad5/3-hTERT-hNIS efficiently killed prostate cancer cells and induced iodine uptake in vitro and in vivo after intratumoral virus administration. Survival of mice treated with intravenous Ad5/3-hTERT-hNIS significantly prolonged survival over mock or radioiodine only but the combination of virus with radioiodine was not more effective than virus alone. Temporal and spatial changes in hNIS-expression during therapy were detected with SPECT, demonstrating feasibility of evaluation of the combination therapy with hNIS-expressing adenoviruses and radioiodide.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e32871. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032871 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Malignant tumours of the prostate other than carcinomas are rare , among these primary sarcomas are the most frequently observed. Primary sarcoma tumors of the prostate arise from specialized hormone-dependent mesenchymal cells  and are classified, according to their histology, as stromal tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) and stromal prostatic sarcoma (PS; namely low grade and high grade)   . We describe a rare case of low-grade stromal sarcoma (LG-PS) of the specialised prostatic stroma, and we also review the literature concerning these tumours. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary sarcoma tumours of the prostate are rare and are classified, according to their histology, as stromal tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) and stromal prostatic sarcoma (PS; low and high grade). We describe a case of a 71-year-old man that developed progressive urinary obstruction symptoms and was subjected to a transurethral prostatic resection (TURP). Histologically, there is a diffuse proliferation of epithelioid and spindle cells that showed rare atypical mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells express diffusely CD34 and focally progesterone whereas no immunoreactivity was seen for cytocheratin, desmin, S-100, Bcl-2, chromogranin, CD117, and actin smooth muscle. A final diagnosis of low-grade prostatic stromal sarcoma (LG-PS) was made. This is a really rare neoplasm; in the literature, in fact, to our knowledge, only 6 cases are described and all of these were alive and free of disease at followup. Our patient too is free of disease at 15 months from the diagnosis.
"A review of the literature based on a PubMed search for patients aged less than 40 years with a diagnosis of PSS, STUMP, PSS-PT, or STUMP-PT identified 21 cases described since 1977, about 15–20% of all of the stromal tumors reported worldwide (Table 1).1–6,8–21 This means that STUMP and PSS have been diagnosed in 10 and 11 cases, respectively. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stromal tumors of the prostate are rare and only a few cases have been described in the literature, including exceptional cases of stromal tumors with unknown malignant potential (STUMP) and a fatal outcome in young patients. Morphologically distinguishing a STUMP from a stromal sarcoma of the prostate (PSS) is still a challenge. We describe the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a 34-year-old man with a malignant specialized cell stromal tumor of the prostate that was diagnosed initially as STUMP, and he developed lung metastases within a few months. The patient attended our hospital because of lower urinary tract symptoms, after having excreted tissue through the urethra a few months before. Ultrasonography and urethrocystoscopy examinations showed a mass arising from the verumontanum, and a transurethral resection (TUR) revealed a highgrade spindle cell sarcoma reminiscent of a phyllode tumor of the breast. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, progesterone receptor and, focally, CD34. The preliminary histological findings were subsequently confirmed after radical prostatectomy. The patient developed bilateral lung metastases and died 25 months after the initial diagnosis. Although rare in young patients, the challenging differential diagnosis of STUMP and PSS means that a prostate STUMP diagnosis made on the basis of biopsy or TUR specimens also requires urethrocystoscopic monitoring for the early detection of any progression to PSS. Radical prostatectomy should also be carefully considered.
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