Effects of secreted frizzled-related protein 3 on osteoblasts in vitro.
ABSTRACT To examine if sFRP3s act as decoy receptors for Wnt, we examined the effects of recombinant sFRP3 on mouse osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. We found that sFRP3 unexpectedly increased osteoblast differentiation, suggesting it may act through other mechanisms besides acting as a decoy receptor for Wnt's.
Secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) are a truncated form of frizzled receptor, missing both the transmembrane and cytosolic domains. Because previous studies have shown that sFRPs bind and act as decoy receptors for Wnt proteins that promote osteoblast differentiation, we postulated that sFRP3 acts as an inhibitor of osteoblast differentiation.
We examined the effects of mouse recombinant sFRP3 and/or Wnt-3A on cell proliferation and differentiation using MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts and primary cultures of mouse bone marrow stromal cells. We evaluated the effects of sFRP3 on beta-catenin levels using Western immunoblot analyses.
We found that sFRP3 suppressed osteoblast cell number in a dose-dependent manner that was the result of a decrease in proliferation and not because of an increase in apoptosis. Surprisingly, sFRP3 increased osteoblast differentiation, which could not be explained based on sFRP3 acting as a decoy receptor for stimulatory Wnt's. Furthermore, sFRP3 did not inhibit Wnt3A-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Wnt3A, but not sFRP3 treatment, increased cellular beta-catenin levels, and sFRP3 failed to block Wnt3A-induced increase in cellular beta-catenin levels. Treatment with endostatin, an agent known to degrade beta-catenin, did not inhibit sFRP3-induced increase in ALP activity. sFRP1, like sFRP3, inhibited proliferation and stimulated ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts.
Based on our findings, we conclude that sFRP3 decreased osteoblast proliferation and unexpectedly increased parameters of osteoblast differentiation. Based on our findings, we propose that sFRP3 may stimulate differentiation through a beta-catenin-independent pathway in addition to its previously known function as a decoy receptor for Wnt's.
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ABSTRACT: Frzb-1 is a secreted protein containing a domain similar to the putative Wnt-binding region of the frizzled family of transmembrane receptors. Frzb-1 is widely expressed in adult mammalian tissues. In the Xenopus gastrula, it is expressed and regulated as a typical Spemann organizer component. Injection of frzb-1 mRNA blocks expression of XMyoD mRNA and leads to embryos with enlarged heads and shortened trunks. Frzb-1 antagonizes the effects of Xwnt-8 ectopic expression in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Cultured cells transfected with a membrane-tethered form of Wnt-1 bind epitope-tagged Frzb-1 in the 10(-10) M range. The results strengthen the view that the Spemann organizer is a source of secreted inhibitory factors.Cell 04/1997; 88(6):747-56. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Functional control of the transcription factor Runx2 is crucial for normal bone formation. Runx2 is detectable throughout osteoblast development and maturation and temporally regulates several bone-specific genes. In this study, we identified a novel post-translational mechanism regulating Runx2-dependent activation of the osteocalcin promoter. A functional binding site for the high mobility group protein lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) was found adjacent to the proximal Runx2-binding site in the osteocalcin promoter. In transcription assays, LEF1 repressed Runx2-induced activation of the mouse osteocalcin 2 promoter in several osteoblast lineage cell lines. Mutations in the LEF1-binding site increased the basal activity of the osteocalcin promoter; however, the LEF1 recognition site in the osteocalcin promoter was surprisingly not required for LEF1 repression. A novel interaction between the DNA-binding domains of Runx2 and LEF1 was identified and found crucial for LEF1-mediated repression of Runx2. LEF1 is a nuclear effector of the Wnt/LRP5/beta-catenin signaling pathway, which is also essential for osteoblast proliferation and normal skeletal development. A constitutively active beta-catenin enhanced LEF1-dependent repression of Runx2. These data identify a novel mechanism of regulating Runx2 activity in osteoblasts and link Runx2 transcriptional activity to beta-catenin signaling.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2003; 278(14):11937-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Wnt antagonist Frzb-1 is expressed during limb skeletogenesis, but its roles in this complex multistep process are not fully understood. To address this issue, we determined Frzb-1 gene expression patterns during chick long bone development and carried out gain- and loss-of-function studies by misexpression of Frzb-1, Wnt-8 (a known Frzb-1 target), or different forms of the intracellular Wnt mediator LEF-1 in developing limbs and cultured chondrocytes. Frzb-1 expression was quite strong in mesenchymal prechondrogenic condensations and then characterized epiphyseal articular chondrocytes and prehypertrophic chondrocytes in growth plates. Virally driven Frzb-1 misexpression caused shortening of skeletal elements, joint fusion, and delayed chondrocyte maturation, with consequent inhibition of matrix mineralization, metalloprotease expression, and marrow/bone formation. In good agreement, misexpression of Frzb-1 or a dominant-negative form of LEF-1 in cultured chondrocytes maintained the cells at an immature stage. Instead, misexpression of Wnt-8 or a constitutively active LEF-1 strongly promoted chondrocyte maturation, hypertrophy, and calcification. Immunostaining revealed that the distribution of endogenous Wnt mediator beta-catenin changes dramatically in vivo and in vitro, from largely cytoplasmic in immature proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes to nuclear in hypertrophic mineralizing chondrocytes. Misexpression of Frzb-1 prevented beta-catenin nuclear relocalization in chondrocytes in vivo or in vitro. The data demonstrate that Frzb-1 exerts a strong influence on limb skeletogenesis and is a powerful and direct modulator of chondrocyte maturation, phenotype, and function. Phases of skeletogenesis, such as terminal chondrocyte maturation and joint formation, appear to be particularly dependent on Wnt signaling and thus very sensitive to Frzb-1 antagonistic action.Developmental Biology 12/2002; 251(1):142-56. · 3.87 Impact Factor