Age-related changes in plasma coenzyme Q(10) concentrations and redox state in apparently healthy children and adults

Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Clinica Chimica Acta (Impact Factor: 2.82). 10/2004; 347(1-2):139-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.cccn.2004.04.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) is an endogenous enzyme cofactor, which may provide protective benefits as an antioxidant. Because age-related CoQ changes and deficiency states have been described, there is a need to establish normal ranges in healthy children. The objectives of this study are to determine if age-related differences in reduced CoQ (ubiquinol), oxidized CoQ (ubiquinone), and CoQ redox state exist in childhood, and to establish reference intervals for these analytes in healthy children.
Apparently healthy children (n=68) were selected from individuals with no history of current acute illness, medically diagnosed disease, or current medication treatment. Self-reported healthy adults (n=106) were selected from the ongoing Princeton Follow-up Study in greater Cincinnati. Participants were assessed for lipid profiles, ubiquinol concentration, ubiquinone concentration, total CoQ concentration, and CoQ redox ratio.
Mean total CoQ and ubiquinol concentrations are similar in younger children (0.2-7.6 years) and adults (29-78 years); however, lipid-adjusted total CoQ concentrations are significantly increased in younger children. Also CoQ redox ratio is significantly increased in younger and older children compared with adults.
Elevated CoQ and redox ratios in children may be an indication of oxidative stress effects, which are associated with early development of coronary heart disease.

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Available from: Peter Tang, Aug 07, 2015
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    • "A comparison of the ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone- 10-ratio between children and adults shows that the quotient of the ratio decreases with increasing age. Additionally, absolute ubiquinone-10 levels are higher in younger children and adults than in older children [33]. Likewise, in a pediatric human study by Menke et al. it is depicted that redox-state (percentage of ubiquinone-10 in total CoQ 10 ) is higher in infants and pre-schoolers than in older children [31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q derivatives (CoQ) are lipid soluble antioxidants that are synthesized endogenously in almost all species and function as an obligatory cofactor of the respiratory chain. There is evidence that CoQ status is altered by age in several species. Here we determined level and redox-state of CoQ in different age groups of pigs, mice and Caenorhabditis elegans. Since these species are very different with respect to lifespan, reproduction and physiology, our approach could provide some general tendencies of CoQ status in ageing organisms. We found that CoQ level decreases with age in pigs and mice, whereas CoQ content increases in older worms. As observed in all three species, ubiquinone, the oxidized form of CoQ, increases with age. Additionally, we were able to show that supplementation of ubiquinol-10, the reduced form of human CoQ10 , slightly increases lifespan of post-reproductive worms. In conclusion, the percentage of the oxidized form of CoQ increases with age indicating higher oxidative stress or rather a decreased anti-oxidative capacity of aged animals. © 2014 BioFactors, 2014.
    BioFactors 05/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1002/biof.1160 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    • "Because of its importance in cell homeostasis, CoQ levels have been documented in various tissues. Levels of CoQ often decline with the progression of certain diseases (particularly degenerative diseases) [12] [13] [14] [15] and upon aging in general [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q plays an integral role in oxygen metabolism and management, and there is a positive correlation between low tissue coenzyme Q concentrations and the progression of many degenerative diseases. Retinal oxidative damage plays a role in the pathogenesis of many degenerative eye diseases; nevertheless, despite the retina's high rate of oxygen metabolism, there is little data relating to retinal coenzyme Q concentrations. In this study, we quantified coenzyme Q in the model bovine eye and determined whether it could function as a retinal lipid antioxidant. We found that the neural retina's ubiquinone concentration exceeded those of the vitreous humor, lens, choroid, and extraocular muscle, but it was lower than those measured in heart, kidney, liver, and brain tissues. Ubiquinol was found to be as effective as vitamin E as a retinal lipid antioxidant. The overall relatively low levels of ubiquinone found in the retina, coupled with the retina's need for lipid antioxidants and oxidative metabolism, suggests that retinal function might be sensitive to changes in ubiquinone concentrations.
    BioFactors 09/2011; 37(5):393-8. DOI:10.1002/biof.166 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    • "In relation to changes in CoQ concentration during aging, it has been reported that CoQ is greatly increased in the first 20 years of life in humans, followed by a decrease to a variable extent, and in some organs may be lower at 80 years than at birth [56]. In a study designed to investigate age-related changes in plasma coenzyme Q 10 concentrations and redox state in apparently healthy children and adults, Miles et al. [38] found that CoQ and ubiquinol concentrations are unchanged between early childhood and adults 30 to 80 years old. In 1999, Lass et al. demonstrated that mitochondria prepared from tissues of aged mice did not exhibit changes in CoQ levels [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Life-long low-dosage supplementation of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is studied in relation to the antioxidant status and DNA damage. Thirty-two male rats were assigned into two experimental groups differing in the supplementation or not with 0.7 mg/kg/day of CoQ(10). Eight rats per group were killed at 6 and 24 months. Plasma retinol, alpha-tocopherol, coenzyme Q, total antioxidant capacity and fatty acids were analysed. DNA strand breaks were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Aging and supplementation led to significantly higher values for CoQ homologues, retinol and alpha-tocopherol. No difference in total antioxidant capacity was detected at 6 months but significantly lower values were found in aged control animals. Similar DNA strand breaks levels were found at 6 months. Aging led to significantly higher DNA strand breaks levels in both groups but animals supplemented with CoQ(10) led to a significantly lower increase in that marker. Aged rats showed significantly higher polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study demonstrates that lifelong intake of a low dosage of CoQ(10) enhances plasma levels of CoQ(9), CoQ(10), alpha-tocopherol and retinol. In addition, CoQ(10) supplementation attenuates the age-related fall in total antioxidant capacity of plasma and the increase in DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes.
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