3-Deazaadenosine prevents leukocyte invasion by suppression of adhesion molecule expression during acute cardiac allograft rejection: involvement of apoptotic cell death.
ABSTRACT In the initial phase after cardiac transplantation, mononuclear cells infiltrate the graft, initiating a relevant impulse for rejection. 3-Deazaadenosine (c3Ado), an analog of adenosine, has proven anti-inflammatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that c3Ado can serve as a therapeutic tool to reduce cellular infiltration in cardiac allograft transplantation.
Using the Wistar-Furth-to-Lewis rat cardiac allograft model, animals were treated with 5 mg c3Ado subcutaneously twice per day. Allografts of untreated animals served as controls. Grafts were harvested on Days 1, 3 and 6 after transplantation for further examination (n = 4 per group and timepoint).
Immunohistochemical examination of c3Ado-treated grafts revealed up to 80% reduction of infiltrating major histocompatability complex (MHC) II-positive cells and T-cell-receptor-positive cells (R73) as well as ED1-positive monocytes and macrophages at Days 3 and 6 after transplantation. Adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) expression at Days 1 and 3 was almost completely abolished in c3Ado-treated grafts. However, c3Ado treatment did not prevent apoptotic cell death (TUNEL assay, DNA laddering) at Day 6, nor did it prolong allograft survival. As in controls, grafts were rejected at Day 7.
c3Ado significantly reduces graft infiltration by preventing leukocyte invasion, most likely through suppression of adhesion molecule expression. Although graft survival was not prolonged, treatment with c3Ado may still serve as a strategy to protect hearts from early damage after transplantation. Further studies will show whether peri-operative use of c3Ado can bridge the critical phase after transplantation when standard immunosuppression is not yet completely efficacious.
- SourceAvailable from: Terry B. Strom[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Procedures to diagnose renal allograft rejection depend upon detection of graft dysfunction and the presence of a mononuclear leukocytic infiltrate; however, the presence of a modest cellular infiltrate is often not conclusive and can be detected in non-rejecting grafts. We have pursued a molecular approach utilizing reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to test the diagnostic accuracy of multiple immune activation gene analysis as means to diagnose renal allograft rejection. The magnitude of intragraft gene expression of 15 immune activation genes was quantified by competitive RT-PCR in 60 renal allograft core biopsies obtained for surveillance or to diagnose the etiology of graft dysfunction. Results were compared with a clinicopathological analysis based upon the histological diagnosis (Banff criteria) and the response to antirejection treatment. During acute renal allograft rejection intragraft expression of the interleukin (IL)-7 (P < 0.001), IL-10 (P < 0.0001), IL-15 (P < 0.0001), Fas ligand (P < 0.0001), perforin (P < 0.0001), and granzyme B (P < 0.0015), but not IL-2, interferon γ, or IL-4, genes is significantly heightened. Amplified RANTES and IL-8 gene transcripts are sensitive but nonspecific markers of rejection. A simultaneous RT-PCR evaluation of perforin, granzyme B, and Fas ligand identifies acute rejection, including cases with mild infiltration, with extraordinary sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). Effective antirejection therapy results in a rapid down-regulation of gene expression. The combined analysis of Fas ligand, perforin, and granzyme B gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR provides a reliable tool for diagnosis and follow-up of acute renal allograft rejection. Its accuracy and a potential rapid application within few hours suggest its use in the clinical management of renal transplant patients.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1997; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of NO and superoxide (O2−) in tissue injury during cardiac allograft rejection was investigated by using a rat ex vivo organ perfusion system. Excessive NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression were observed in cardiac allografts at 5 days after cardiac transplantation, but not in cardiac isografts, as identified by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and Northern blotting. Cardiac isografts or allografts obtained on Day 5 after transplantation were perfused with Krebs bicarbonate buffer with or without various antidotes for NO or O2−, including Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 1 mM), 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO; 100 μM), 4-amino-6-hydroxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (AHPP; a xanthine oxidase inhibitor; 100 μM), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; 100 units/ml). Treatment of the cardiac allografts with PTIO showed most remarkable improvement of the cardiac injury as revealed by significant reduction in aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase concentrations in the perfusate. Similar but less potent protective effect on the allograft injury was observed by treatment with L-NMMA, AHPP, and SOD. Immunohistochemical analyses for iNOS and nitrotyrosine indicated that iNOS is mainly expressed by macrophages infiltrating the allograft tissues, and nitrotyrosine formation was demonstrated not only in macrophages but also in cardiac myocytes of the allografts, providing indirect evidence for the generation of peroxynitrite during allograft rejection. Our results suggest that tissue injury in rat cardiac allografts during acute rejection is mediated by both NO and O2−, possibly through peroxynitrite formation.Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 10/2000; 225(2):151 - 159.
- Cardiovascular Research 05/1998; 38(1):6-15. · 5.94 Impact Factor