Loss of collagen XVIII enhances neovascularization and vascular permeability in atherosclerosis.
ABSTRACT Plaque neovascularization is thought to promote atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms of its regulation are not understood. Collagen XVIII and its proteolytically released endostatin fragment are abundant proteoglycans in vascular basement membranes and the walls of major blood vessels. We hypothesized that collagen XVIII in the aortic wall inhibits the proliferation and intimal extension of vasa vasorum.
To test our hypothesis, we bred collagen XVIII-knockout (Col18a1(-/-)) mice into the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) strain. After 6 months on a cholesterol diet, aortas from ApoE(-/-);Col18a1(-/-) and ApoE(-/-);Col18a1(+/-) heterozygote mice showed increased atheroma coverage and enhanced lipid accumulation compared with wild-type littermates. We observed more extensive vasa vasorum and intimal neovascularization in knockout but not heterozygote aortas. Endothelial cells sprouting from Col18a1(-/-) aortas were increased compared with heterozygote and wild-type aortas. In contrast, vascular permeability of large and small blood vessels was enhanced with even heterozygous loss of collagen XVIII but was not suppressed by increasing serum endostatin to wild-type levels.
Our results identify a previously unrecognized function for collagen XVIII that maintains vascular permeability. Loss of this basement membrane proteoglycan enhances angiogenesis and vascular permeability during atherosclerosis by distinct gene-dose-dependent mechanisms.
Circulation Journal 01/2010; 74(1):45-6. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Collagen XVIII is a component of the highly specialized extracellular matrix associated with basement membranes of epithelia and endothelia. In the normal kidney, collagen XVIII is distributed throughout glomerular and tubular basement membranes, mesangial matrix, and Bowman's capsule. Proteolytic cleavage within its C-terminal domain releases the fragment endostatin, which has antiangiogenic properties. Because damage to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) accompanies immune-mediated renal injury, we investigated the role of collagen XVIII/endostatin in this disorder. We induced anti-GBM glomerulonephritis in collagen XVIII alpha1-null and wild-type mice and compared the resulting matrix accumulation, inflammation, and capillary rarefaction. Anti-GBM disease upregulated collagen XVIII/endostatin expression within the GBM and Bowman's capsule of wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin-deficient mice developed more severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury than wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin deficiency altered matrix remodeling, enhanced the inflammatory response, and promoted capillary rarefaction and vascular endothelial cell damage, but did not affect endothelial proliferation. Supplementing collagen XVIII-deficient mice with exogenous endostatin did not affect the progression of anti-GBM disease. Taken together, these results suggest that collagen XVIII/endostatin preserves the integrity of the extracellular matrix and capillaries in the kidney, protecting against progressive glomerulonephritis.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2010; 21(9):1445-55. · 9.66 Impact Factor
Article: Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism. We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia. This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(11):e13919. · 4.09 Impact Factor