Gli proteins up-regulate the expression of basonuclin in Basal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Tumorigenesis is frequently accompanied by enhanced rRNA transcription, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for such enhancement remain unclear. Here, we report evidence suggesting a novel link between deregulated Hedgehog signaling and the augmented rRNA transcription in cancer. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway in keratinocytes is a hallmark of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cancer in light-skinned individuals. We show that Gli proteins, downstream effectors of the Hedgehog pathway, increase expression of a novel rRNA gene (rDNA) transcription factor, basonuclin, whose expression is markedly elevated in BCCs. The promoter of the human basonuclin gene contains a Gli-binding site, which is required for Gli protein binding and transcriptional activation. We show also that the level of 47S pre-rRNA is much higher in BCCs than in normal epidermis, suggesting an accelerated rRNA transcription in the neoplastic cells. Within BCC, those cells expressing the highest level of basonuclin also exhibit the greatest increase in 47S pre-rRNA, consistent with a role for basonuclin in increasing rRNA transcription in these cells. Our data suggest that Hedgehog-Gli pathway enhances rRNA transcription in BCC by increasing basonuclin gene expression.
Article: An intergenic non-coding rRNA correlated with expression of the rRNA and frequency of an rRNA single nucleotide polymorphism in lung cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a central regulator of cell growth and may control cancer development. A cis noncoding rRNA (nc-rRNA) upstream from the 45S rRNA transcription start site has recently been implicated in control of rRNA transcription in mouse fibroblasts. We investigated whether a similar nc-rRNA might be expressed in human cancer epithelial cells, and related to any genomic characteristics. Using quantitative rRNA measurement, we demonstrated that a nc-rRNA is transcribed in human lung epithelial and lung cancer cells, starting from approximately -1000 nucleotides upstream of the rRNA transcription start site (+1) and extending at least to +203. This nc-rRNA was significantly more abundant in the majority of lung cancer cell lines, relative to a nontransformed lung epithelial cell line. Its abundance correlated negatively with total 45S rRNA in 12 of 13 cell lines (P = 0.014). During sequence analysis from -388 to +306, we observed diverse, frequent intercopy single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rRNA, with a frequency greater than predicted by chance at 12 sites. A SNP at +139 (U/C) in the 5' leader sequence varied among the cell lines and correlated negatively with level of the nc-rRNA (P = 0.014). Modelling of the secondary structure of the rRNA 5'-leader sequence indicated a small increase in structural stability due to the +139 U/C SNP and a minor shift in local configuration occurrences. The results demonstrate occurrence of a sense nc-rRNA in human lung epithelial and cancer cells, and imply a role in regulation of the rRNA gene, which may be affected by a +139 SNP in the 5' leader sequence of the primary rRNA transcript.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(10):e7505. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of basal cell carcinoma, the commonest human cancer in fair skinned populations, is clearly associated with constitutive activation of sonic hedgehog signaling. Insight into the genesis of BCC came from the identification of germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, PATCHED, a key regulatory component of hedgehog signaling in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Analysis of sporadic basal cell carcinomas and those from repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients has revealed mutational inactivation of PATCHED and gain of function mutations of the proto-oncogenes, SMOOTHENED and SONIC HEDGEHOG associated with solar UV exposure. The molecular mechanisms involved in alterations of the hedgehog signaling pathway that lead to the formation of basal cell carcinomas are being unraveled and has already allowed the investigation of future therapeutic strategies for treating these skin cancers.Cancer Letters 08/2005; 225(2):181-92. · 4.24 Impact Factor