Structure of alanine dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus: active site analysis and relation to bacterial cyclodeaminases and mammalian mu crystallin.
ABSTRACT The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus contains an L-Ala dehydrogenase (AlaDH, EC 220.127.116.11) that is not homologous to known bacterial dehydrogenases and appears to represent a previously unrecognized archaeal group of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases. The gene (Genbank; TIGR AF1665) was annotated initially as an ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) on the basis of strong homology with the mu crystallin/OCD protein family. We report the structure of the NAD-bound AF1665 AlaDH (AF-AlaDH) at 2.3 A in a C2 crystal form with the 70 kDa dimer in the asymmetric unit, as the first structural representative of this family. Consistent with its lack of homology to bacterial AlaDH proteins, which are mostly hexameric, the archaeal dimer has a novel structure. Although both types of AlaDH enzyme include a Rossmann-type NAD-binding domain, the arrangement of strands in the C-terminal half of this domain is novel, and the other (catalytic) domain in the archaeal protein has a new fold. The active site presents a cluster of conserved Arg and Lys side-chains over the pro-R face of the cofactor. In addition, the best ordered of the 338 water molecules in the structure is positioned well for mechanistic interaction. The overall structure and active site are compared with other dehydrogenases, including the AlaDH from Phormidium lapideum. Implications for the catalytic mechanism and for the structures of homologs are considered. The archaeal AlaDH represents an ancient and previously undescribed subclass of Rossmann-fold proteins that includes bacterial ornithine and lysine cyclodeaminases, marsupial lens proteins and, in man, a thyroid hormone-binding protein that exhibits 30% sequence identity with AF1665.
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ABSTRACT: L-Ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) is involved in L-proline biosynthesis and catalyzes the unique deaminating cyclization of L-ornithine to L-proline via a Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxyrate (Pyr2C) intermediate. Although this pathway functions in only a few bacteria, many archaea possess OCD-like genes (proteins), among which only AF1665 protein (gene) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus has been characterized as an NAD+-dependent L-alanine dehydrogenase (AfAlaDH). However, the physiological role of OCD-like proteins from archaea has been unclear. Recently, we revealed that Pyr2C reductase, involved in trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline (T3LHyp) metabolism of bacteria, belongs to the OCD protein superfamily and catalyzes only the reduction of Pyr2C to L-proline (no OCD activity) [FEBS Open Bio (2014) 4, 240-250]. In this study, based on bioinformatics analysis, we assumed that the OCD-like gene from Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473 is related to T3LHyp and/or proline metabolism (TlLhpI). Interestingly, TlLhpI showed three different enzymatic activities: AlaDH; N-methyl-L-alanine dehydrogenase; Pyr2C reductase. Kinetic analysis suggested strongly that Pyr2C is the preferred substrate. In spite of their similar activity, TlLhpI had a poor phylogenetic relationship to the bacterial and mammalian reductases for Pyr2C and formed a close but distinct subfamily to AfAlaDH, indicating convergent evolution. Introduction of several specific amino acid residues for OCD and/or AfAlaDH by site-directed mutagenesis had marked effects on both AlaDH and Pyr2C reductase activities. The OCC_00387 gene, clustered with the TlLhpI gene on the genome, encoded T3LHyp dehydratase, homologous to the bacterial and mammalian enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T3LHyp metabolism from archaea.FEBS Open Bio. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: L-Lysine cyclodeaminase from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, isolated to 90% purity after two purification steps and characterised. The size of the isolated recombinant enzyme was in agreement with the theoretical size calculated from the corresponding gene. We demonstrated that our preparation converts L-lysine to L-pipecolic acid (enantiomeric excess >95%) after isolating and identifying the conversion product by LC/MS, NMR and IR. This conversion followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) of 1.39+/-0.32 mM. The enzyme activity was maximal at pH 6.7. Reducing conditions, the presence of glycerol and in particular the presence of iron(II) significantly enhanced the L-lysine cyclodeaminase activity. Although the heat stability of the enzyme diminished significantly after 37 degrees C, the initial rate of reaction was maximal at 61 degrees C. We found no requirement for an external cofactor for full activity, although sequence data indicate NAD+ as cofactor. Upon enzyme denaturation, NAD+ release was observed, which indicates very tight binding of NAD+ to the enzyme. In parallel we developed selection and screening assays for lysine cyclodeaminase, which we adapted to microtitre plate format and validated. Among twenty-eight lysine analogues screened for turnover/binding to the enzyme, three were identified as substrates (L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine and L-4-thialysine), while another six (4-azalysine, L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid, 1,5-diaminopentane, N-epsilon-trifluoroacetyl-L-lysine, N-epsilon-Boc-L-lysine and N-epsilon-methyl-L-lysine) were shown to compete against L-lysine turnover without being converted by the enzyme. All substrates displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics upon turnover by lysine cyclodeaminase. Our results indicate that the lysine cyclodeaminase from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis is a highly enantioselective enzyme at the substrate recognition and conversion levels, in both cases in favour of the l-isomer.Biochimie 06/2007; 89(5):591-604. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A key intermediate in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-catalyzed reaction is an imine. Mechanistically, therefore, GDH exhibits similarities to the ketimine reductases. In the current review, we briefly discuss (a) the metabolic importance of the GDH reaction in liver and brain, (b) the mechanistic similarities between GDH and the ketimine reductases, (c) the metabolic importance of the brain ketimine reductases, and (d) the neurochemical consequences of defective ketimine reductases. Our review contains many historical references to the early work on amino acid metabolism. This work tends to be overlooked nowadays, but is crucial for a contemporary understanding of the central importance of ketimines in nitrogen and intermediary metabolism. The ketimine reductases are important enzymes linking nitrogen flow among several key amino acids, yet have been little studied. The cerebral importance of the ketimine reductases is an area of biomedical research that deserves far more attention.Neurochemical Research 01/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor