Structure of alanine dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus: active site analysis and relation to bacterial cyclodeaminases and mammalian mu crystallin.
ABSTRACT The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus contains an L-Ala dehydrogenase (AlaDH, EC 184.108.40.206) that is not homologous to known bacterial dehydrogenases and appears to represent a previously unrecognized archaeal group of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases. The gene (Genbank; TIGR AF1665) was annotated initially as an ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) on the basis of strong homology with the mu crystallin/OCD protein family. We report the structure of the NAD-bound AF1665 AlaDH (AF-AlaDH) at 2.3 A in a C2 crystal form with the 70 kDa dimer in the asymmetric unit, as the first structural representative of this family. Consistent with its lack of homology to bacterial AlaDH proteins, which are mostly hexameric, the archaeal dimer has a novel structure. Although both types of AlaDH enzyme include a Rossmann-type NAD-binding domain, the arrangement of strands in the C-terminal half of this domain is novel, and the other (catalytic) domain in the archaeal protein has a new fold. The active site presents a cluster of conserved Arg and Lys side-chains over the pro-R face of the cofactor. In addition, the best ordered of the 338 water molecules in the structure is positioned well for mechanistic interaction. The overall structure and active site are compared with other dehydrogenases, including the AlaDH from Phormidium lapideum. Implications for the catalytic mechanism and for the structures of homologs are considered. The archaeal AlaDH represents an ancient and previously undescribed subclass of Rossmann-fold proteins that includes bacterial ornithine and lysine cyclodeaminases, marsupial lens proteins and, in man, a thyroid hormone-binding protein that exhibits 30% sequence identity with AF1665.
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ABSTRACT: trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline (T4LHyp) and trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline (T3LHyp) occur mainly in collagen. A few bacteria can convert T4LHyp to α-ketoglutarate, and we previously revealed a hypothetical pathway consisting of four enzymes at the molecular level (J Biol Chem (2007) 282, 6685-6695; J Biol Chem (2012) 287, 32674-32688). Here, we first found that Azospirillum brasilense has the ability to grow not only on T4LHyp but also T3LHyp as a sole carbon source. In A. brasilense cells, T3LHyp dehydratase and NAD(P)H-dependent Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate (Pyr2C) reductase activities were induced by T3LHyp (and D-proline and D-lysine) but not T4LHyp, and no effect of T3LHyp was observed on the expression of T4LHyp metabolizing enzymes: a hypothetical pathway of T3LHyp→Pyr2C→L-proline was proposed. Bacterial T3LHyp dehydratase, encoded to LhpH gene, was homologous with the mammalian enzyme. On the other hand, Pyr2C reductase encoded to LhpI gene was a novel member of ornithine cyclodeaminase/μ-crystallin superfamily, differing from known bacterial protein. Furthermore, the LhpI enzymes of A. brasilense and another bacterium showed several different properties, including substrate and coenzyme specificities. T3LHyp was converted to proline by the purified LhpH and LhpI proteins. Furthermore, disruption of LhpI gene from A. brasilense led to loss of growth on T3LHyp, D-proline and D-lysine, indicating that this gene has dual metabolic functions as a reductase for Pyr2C and Δ1-piperidine-2-carboxylate in these pathways, and that the T3LHyp pathway is not linked to T4LHyp and L-proline metabolism.FEBS Open Bio. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Mu-Crystallin (CRYM), first described as a structural component of the eye lens in marsupials, has been characterized as a NADPH-dependent cytosolic T3 thyroid hormone (triiodotyronine) binding protein. More recently, Mu-Crystallin has also been associated with ketimine reductase activity. Here, we report three crystal structures: mouse CRYM (mCRYM) in its apo form, in a form complexed with NADPH, and in a form with both NADPH and triiodotyronine bound. Comparison of apo and NADPH forms reveals a rearrangement of the protein upon NADPH binding that reduces the degrees of freedom of several residues and traps the conformation of the binding pocket in a more T3 competent state. These findings are in agreement with the cooperative mechanism identified using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our structure with T3 reveals for the first time the location of the hormone binding site and shows its detailed interactions. T3 binding involves mainly hydrophobic interactions. Only five residues, either directly or through bridging water molecules, are hydrogen-bonded to the hormone. Using in silico docking analysis, a series of ring-containing hydrophobic molecules were identified as potential mCRYM ligands, suggesting that the specificity for the recognition of the hydrophobic part of the hormone might be low. This is in agreement with the ketimine reductase activity that has been identified for ovine CRYM, as it demonstrates how a protein known as a thyroid hormone transporter can accommodate the ringed molecules required for its ketimine reductase activity. In the light of our results, a putative role of CRYM in thyroid hormone metabolism is also discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. CRYM and CRYM bind by x-ray crystallography (View interaction).FEBS Journal 01/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alanine dehydrogenase (OF4Ald) from the alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 was expressed and purified with a His6 tag in a form suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K using a solution consisting of 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 0.2 M LiSO4, 22%(w/v) PEG 3350. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.04, b = 105.59, c = 120.53 Å, α = 88.37, β = 78.77, γ = 82.65°.Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 11/2013; 69(Pt 11):1227-30. · 0.55 Impact Factor