Structure of alanine dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus: Active site analysis and relation to bacterial cyclodeaminases and mammalian mu crystallin
ABSTRACT The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus contains an L-Ala dehydrogenase (AlaDH, EC 188.8.131.52) that is not homologous to known bacterial dehydrogenases and appears to represent a previously unrecognized archaeal group of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases. The gene (Genbank; TIGR AF1665) was annotated initially as an ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) on the basis of strong homology with the mu crystallin/OCD protein family. We report the structure of the NAD-bound AF1665 AlaDH (AF-AlaDH) at 2.3 A in a C2 crystal form with the 70 kDa dimer in the asymmetric unit, as the first structural representative of this family. Consistent with its lack of homology to bacterial AlaDH proteins, which are mostly hexameric, the archaeal dimer has a novel structure. Although both types of AlaDH enzyme include a Rossmann-type NAD-binding domain, the arrangement of strands in the C-terminal half of this domain is novel, and the other (catalytic) domain in the archaeal protein has a new fold. The active site presents a cluster of conserved Arg and Lys side-chains over the pro-R face of the cofactor. In addition, the best ordered of the 338 water molecules in the structure is positioned well for mechanistic interaction. The overall structure and active site are compared with other dehydrogenases, including the AlaDH from Phormidium lapideum. Implications for the catalytic mechanism and for the structures of homologs are considered. The archaeal AlaDH represents an ancient and previously undescribed subclass of Rossmann-fold proteins that includes bacterial ornithine and lysine cyclodeaminases, marsupial lens proteins and, in man, a thyroid hormone-binding protein that exhibits 30% sequence identity with AF1665.
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ABSTRACT: Ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) is an NAD+-dependent deaminase that is found in bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida. Importantly, it catalyzes the direct conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-proline. Using molecular dynamics (MD) and a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method in the ONIOM formalism, the catalytic mechanism of OCD has been examined. The rate limiting step is calculated to be the initial step in the overall mechanism: hydride transfer from the L-ornithine’s Cα–H group to the NAD+ cofactor with concomitant formation of a Cα=NH2 + Schiff base with a barrier of 90.6 kJ mol−1. Importantly, no water is observed within the active site during the MD simulations suitably positioned to hydrolyze the Cα=NH2 + intermediate to form the corresponding carbonyl. Instead, the reaction proceeds via a non-hydrolytic mechanism involving direct nucleophilic attack of the δ-amine at the Cα-position. This is then followed by cleavage and loss of the α-NH2 group to give the Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate that is subsequently reduced to L-proline.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(10):12994-3011. DOI:10.3390/ijms131012994 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline (T4LHyp) and trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline (T3LHyp) occur mainly in collagen. A few bacteria can convert T4LHyp to α-ketoglutarate, and we previously revealed a hypothetical pathway consisting of four enzymes at the molecular level (J Biol Chem (2007) 282, 6685-6695; J Biol Chem (2012) 287, 32674-32688). Here, we first found that Azospirillum brasilense has the ability to grow not only on T4LHyp but also T3LHyp as a sole carbon source. In A. brasilense cells, T3LHyp dehydratase and NAD(P)H-dependent Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate (Pyr2C) reductase activities were induced by T3LHyp (and D-proline and D-lysine) but not T4LHyp, and no effect of T3LHyp was observed on the expression of T4LHyp metabolizing enzymes: a hypothetical pathway of T3LHyp→Pyr2C→L-proline was proposed. Bacterial T3LHyp dehydratase, encoded to LhpH gene, was homologous with the mammalian enzyme. On the other hand, Pyr2C reductase encoded to LhpI gene was a novel member of ornithine cyclodeaminase/μ-crystallin superfamily, differing from known bacterial protein. Furthermore, the LhpI enzymes of A. brasilense and another bacterium showed several different properties, including substrate and coenzyme specificities. T3LHyp was converted to proline by the purified LhpH and LhpI proteins. Furthermore, disruption of LhpI gene from A. brasilense led to loss of growth on T3LHyp, D-proline and D-lysine, indicating that this gene has dual metabolic functions as a reductase for Pyr2C and Δ1-piperidine-2-carboxylate in these pathways, and that the T3LHyp pathway is not linked to T4LHyp and L-proline metabolism.02/2014; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.fob.2014.02.010
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ABSTRACT: A key intermediate in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-catalyzed reaction is an imine. Mechanistically, therefore, GDH exhibits similarities to the ketimine reductases. In the current review, we briefly discuss (a) the metabolic importance of the GDH reaction in liver and brain, (b) the mechanistic similarities between GDH and the ketimine reductases, (c) the metabolic importance of the brain ketimine reductases, and (d) the neurochemical consequences of defective ketimine reductases. Our review contains many historical references to the early work on amino acid metabolism. This work tends to be overlooked nowadays, but is crucial for a contemporary understanding of the central importance of ketimines in nitrogen and intermediary metabolism. The ketimine reductases are important enzymes linking nitrogen flow among several key amino acids, yet have been little studied. The cerebral importance of the ketimine reductases is an area of biomedical research that deserves far more attention.Neurochemical Research 01/2013; 39(3). DOI:10.1007/s11064-012-0964-1 · 2.55 Impact Factor