Perinatal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of anti-retroviral nucleoside analog drugs.
ABSTRACT The current worldwide spread of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) to the heterosexual population has resulted in approximately 800,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected mothers. In the absence of anti-retroviral intervention, about 25% of the approximately 7,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected women in the United States are HIV-1 infected. Administration of zidovudine (AZT) prophylaxis during pregnancy reduces the rate of infant HIV-1 infection to approximately 7%, and further reductions are achieved with the addition of lamivudine (3TC) in the clinical formulation Combivir. Whereas clinically this is a remarkable achievement, AZT and 3TC are DNA replication chain terminators known to induce various types of genotoxicity. Studies in rodents have demonstrated AZT-DNA incorporation, HPRT mutagenesis, telomere shortening, and tumorigenicity in organs of fetal mice exposed transplacentally to AZT. In monkeys, both AZT and 3TC become incorporated into the DNA from multiple fetal organs taken at birth after administration of human-equivalent protocols to pregnant dams during gestation, and telomere shortening has been found in monkey fetuses exposed to both drugs. In human infants, AZT-DNA and 3TC-DNA incorporation as well as HPRT and GPA mutagenesis have been documented in cord blood from infants exposed in utero to Combivir. In infants of mice, monkeys, and humans, levels of AZT-DNA incorporation were remarkably similar, and in newborn mice and humans, mutation frequencies were also very similar. Given the risk-benefit ratio, these highly successful drugs will continue to be used for prevention of vertical viral transmission, however evidence of genotoxicity in mouse and monkey models and in the infants themselves would suggest that exposed children should be followed well past adolescence for early detection of potential cancer hazard.
- SourceAvailable from: Ofelia A Olivero[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A mainstay of the antiretroviral drugs used for therapy of HIV-1, zidovudine (AZT) is genotoxic and becomes incorporated into DNA. Here we explored host inter-individual variability in AZT-DNA incorporation, by AZT radioimmunoassay (RIA), using 19 different strains of normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs) exposed for 24 h to 200 microM AZT. Twelve of the 19 NHMEC strains showed detectable AZT-DNA incorporation levels (16 to 259 molecules of AZT/10(6) nucleotides), while 7 NHMEC strains did not show detectable AZT-DNA incorporation. In order to explore the basis for this variability, we compared the 2 NHMEC strains that showed the highest levels of AZT-DNA incorporation (H1 and H2) with 2 strains showing no detectable AZT-DNA incorporation (L1 and L2). All 4 strains had similar (> or =80%) cell survival, low levels of accumulation of cells in S-phase, and no relevant differences in response to the direct-acting mutagen bleomycin (BLM). Finally, when levels of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), the first enzyme in the pathway for incorporation of AZT into DNA, were determined by Western blot analysis in all 19 NHMEC strains at 24 h of AZT exposure, higher TK1 protein levels were found in the 12 strains showing AZT-DNA incorporation, compared to the 7 showing no incorporation (p=0.0005, Mann-Whitney test). Furthermore, strains L1 and L2, which did not show AZT-DNA incorporation at 24 h, did have measurable incorporation by 48 and 72 h. These data suggest that variability in AZT-DNA incorporation may be modulated by inter-individual differences in the rate of induction of TK1 in response to AZT exposure.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 05/2008; 228(2):158-64. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2007.12.005 · 3.63 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) for treatment of HIV-infected pregnant women have markedly reduced mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) from approximately 25% to <1%. However, zidovudine (ZDV; AZT), a nucleoside analogue, induces chromosomal damage, gene mutations, and cancer in animals following direct or transplacental exposure. To determine if chromosomal damage is induced by ZDV in infants exposed transplacentally, we evaluated micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies (%MN-RET) in 16 HIV-infected ART-treated mother-infant pairs. Thirteen women received prenatal ART containing ZDV; three received ART without ZDV. All infants received ZDV for 6 weeks postpartum. Venous blood was obtained from women at delivery and from infants at 1-3 days, 4-6 weeks, and 4-6 months of life; cord blood was collected immediately after delivery. Ten cord blood samples (controls) were obtained from infants of HIV-uninfected women who did not receive ART. %MN-RET was measured using a single laser 3-color flow cytometric system. Tenfold increases in %MN-RET were seen in women and infants who received ZDV-containing ART prenatally; no increases were detected in three women and infants who received prenatal ART without ZDV. Specifically, mean %MN-RET in cord blood of ZDV-exposed infants was 1.67 +/- 0.34 compared with 0.16 +/- 0.06 in non-ZDV ART-exposed infants (P = 0.006) and 0.12 +/- 0.02 in control cord bloods (P < 0.0001). %MN-RET in ZDV-exposed newborns decreased over the first 6 months of life to levels comparable to cord blood controls. These results demonstrate that transplacentalZDV exposure is genotoxic in humans. Long-term monitoring of HIV-uninfected ZDV-exposed infants is recommended to ensure their continued health.Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 04/2007; 48(3-4):322-9. DOI:10.1002/em.20266 · 2.55 Impact Factor
- Türk Biyokimya Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Biochemistry 01/2014; 39(3):328-335. DOI:10.5505/tjb.2014.25238 · 0.17 Impact Factor