Clostridial neurotoxins

Department of Neurology, Newcastle General Hospital, Regional Neurosciences Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE4 6BE, UK.
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.81). 10/2004; 75 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):iii35-9. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.2004.046102
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Available from: John Buchanan Harris, Apr 07, 2014
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    • "In summary, this study shows that C. botulinum introduced with spiked compost can persist in detectable population sizes in soil, if initial concentrations of 3 Â 10 8 spores m À2 soil surface were used. As a consequence, C. botulinum in soil may contaminate feed or food and enter the food chain, possibly causing diseases in man and animal (Lund & Peck, 2001; Goonetilleke & Harris, 2004). As the recycling of organic waste and the increasing use of these composted products as fertilizers is an important step towards a sustainable resource management, attention should be given to the fate of pathogenic spore-forming bacteria such as C. botulinum. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent study it could be shown that compost samples can contain Clostridium botulinum. It was investigated if C. botulinum introduced with compost into botulinum-free soil can persist and be translocated within the soil. Compost was spiked with two C. botulinum type D spore concentrations (10(3) and 10(5) spores g(-1)) and the composts were spread on an experimental site. Over a period of 939 days, samples were taken from the upper (0-5 cm) and the lower (10-30 cm) soil horizons. Physical and chemical as well as microbiological variables were measured. Clostridium botulinum spores were quantified in a culture MPN-PCR assay. On day 757 the last positive sample was obtained in the plots with the lower spore concentration (10(3) g(-1)). The bacteria were never detected in the samples taken from the lower horizons of these plots. Clostridium botulinum persisted over the whole investigation period in the plots which were treated with compost spiked with 10(5) spores g(-1). The concentrations found were between 20 and 20,000 spores g(-1) soil. The bacteria were vertically translocated and could be found in the lower soil horizons (20-2000 spores g(-1) soil) starting 70 days after the compost was spread.
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    ABSTRACT: Lethal hyperkalemic response to succinylcholine continues to be reported, but the molecular mechanisms for the hyperkalemia have not been completely elucidated. In the normal innervated mature muscle, the acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are located only in the junctional area. In certain pathologic states, including upper or lower motor denervation, chemical denervation by muscle relaxants, drugs, or toxins, immobilization, infection, direct muscle trauma, muscle tumor, or muscle inflammation, and/or burn injury, there is up-regulation (increase) of AChRs spreading throughout the muscle membrane, with the additional expression of two new isoforms of AChRs. The depolarization of these AChRs that are spread throughout the muscle membrane by succinylcholine and its metabolites leads to potassium efflux from the muscle, leading to hyperkalemia. The nicotinic (neuronal) alpha7 acetylcholine receptors, recently described to be expressed in muscle also, can be depolarized not only by acetylcholine and succinylcholine but also by choline, persistently, and possibly play a critical role in the hyperkalemic response to succinylcholine in patients with up-regulated AChRs.
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    ABSTRACT: The term toxin refers in a specific way to a toxic substance of biologic origin; that is, a true toxin is a poison produced by a living organism. The purpose of this article is to review some of the most potentially dangerous toxins of concern today. Mechanisms of action, routes of exposure, diagnostic tools, and treatment recommendations are addressed. In addition, current therapeutic uses for certain toxins are discussed.
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