The Enteroinsular Axis and the Recovery from Type 2 Diabetes after Bariatric Surgery

Department of Surgery, University of Perugia, Policlinico Monteluce, Via Brunamonti, 06122 Perugia, Italy.
Obesity Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.74). 06/2004; 14(6):840-8. DOI: 10.1381/0960892041590818
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) induce long-term control of type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese individuals. The reasons for such an effect on glycemic metabolism are thought to be secondary to reduced food intake, weight loss and modifications of the enteroinsular axis which is impaired in type 2 diabetic patients. Both GLP-1 and GIP have an impaired secretin effect in type 2 diabetics, and surgery can restore this function. GIP is a peptide secreted by the duodenal K-cells in response to ingested fat and carbohydrate. In obese type 2 diabetes patients, its receptor on beta-cells is down-regulated. GLP-1 is a peptide secreted by the gut L-cells, and, in type 2 diabetes, its secretion is impaired. Both RYGBP and BPD provide durable GLP-1 delivery, both during fasting and after meal ingestion, inducing L-cell stimulation by early arrival of nutrients in the distal ileum. The secretion of GLP-1 influences glucose metabolism by inhibiting glucagon secretion, stimulating insulin secretion, delaying gastric emptying and stimulating glycogenogenesis. In conclusion, the early arrival of a meal in the terminal ileum seems to be the common feature of both operations that leads to an improvement in glycemic metabolism and to resolution of type 2 diabetes.

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    ABSTRACT: Background The question of whether pure metabolic surgery could be used in nonobese patients with type 2 diabetes has been considered. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative effects of the Billroth I (BI) and Billroth II (BII) reconstruction methods on remission of type 2 diabetes in nonobese patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy for cancer. Methods The charts of 404 patients who underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy for cancer between January 2008 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. From these patients, 49 with type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Diabetes remission rates, the percentage change in fasting plasma glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and fasting total cholesterol levels at 2 years were observed. Outcomes were compared using propensity scores and inverse probability-weighting adjustment that reduced treatment-selection bias. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models were assessed. Results The 2-year diabetes remission rate for the 23 patients who underwent BI reconstruction was 39.1%, compared with 50.0% for the 26 patients who underwent BII reconstruction. At 2 years, the BII group showed lower glycated hemoglobin levels (BI, 6.4%; BII, 6.1%; P = .003) and had greater percent reductions in their average glycated hemoglobin levels from baseline (BI,−11.6%; BII,−14.5%; P = .043). BII reconstruction was significantly associated with an increased diabetes remission rate (odds ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–9.83) in covariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis. Conclusions These propensity score-adjusted analyses of patients who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy indicated that BII reconstruction was associated with increased diabetes remission compared with BI reconstruction during the 2-year follow-up period. This study suggests the possibility of employing the surgical duodenal switch for the treatment of nonobese type 2 diabetes patients.
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.soard.2013.09.013 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    Medical Clinics of North America 06/2007; 91(3):393-414, x. DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2007.01.005 · 2.80 Impact Factor