Safety and antiretroviral effectiveness of concomitant use of rifampicin and efavirenz for anti retroviral-naive patients in India who are coinfected with tuberculosis and HIV-1
ABSTRACT To study the safety and antiretroviral effectiveness of concomitant use of rifampicin and efavirenz for antiretroviral-naïve patients in India who are coinfected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1.
The study was an observational longitudinal cohort investigation. HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of < or = 200/microL who attended the Infectious Disease Clinic of Sterling Hospital (Ahmedabad, India) from June 2001 to December 2002 were recruited for the study. Patients were divided in 2 groups: group A, patients with active TB (n = 126); and group B, patients without TB (n = 129). Group A patients were given efavirenz with 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors along with rifampicin-containing anti-TB treatment. Group B patients were treated for presenting opportunistic infections and started therapy with efavirenz plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were either zidovudine and lamivudine (n = 30) or stavudine and lamivudine (n = 225). Patients self-funded their investigations and medications (antiretroviral, anti-TB, and other opportunistic infection-related agents). Indian generic medications were used.
Efavirenz-based highly active antiretroviral therapy with rifampicin for HIV/TB-coinfected patients resulted in an immunologic response that was comparable with that of the group not receiving rifampicin. Median CD4 cell counts at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months in group A were 84/microL (range, 5-200/microL), 225/microL (range, 26-528/microL), 251/microL (range, 65-775/microL), and 275/microL (range, 61-611/microL), respectively, and in group B, these values were 118/microL (range, 2-200/microL), 244/microL (range, 38-881/microL), 294/microL (range, 23-1322/microL), and 295/microL (range, 26-991/microL), respectively. The overall increase in CD4 cell count was greater in group A than in group B at 9 months (190 vs. 176/microL, respectively). Patients in both groups tolerated the therapy well; the adverse effects profile was comparable except that group A patients had a higher incidence of hepatitis than group B patients (13.49% vs. 0, respectively; P < 0.0001).
Clinical and immunologic benefits are comparable for patients receiving efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy with or without rifampicin.
- SourceAvailable from: Agnes Kiragga
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- "We and others have previously reported the association of ART-associated TB with lower CD4 recovery (Lawn et al. 2005; Hermans et al. 2010). TB diagnosed before ART initiation was associated with impaired immune reconstitution in South Africa (Bassett et al. 2012), but not in Asia (Patel et al. 2004; Breen et al. 2006; Zhou et al. 2010). When analysing patients with prevalent and ART-associated TB together, a "
ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate whether an unrecognised diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) influences subsequent CD4+ T cell (CD4) count recovery in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, a multivariable polynomial mixed effects model was used to estimate CD4 recovery in the first 96 weeks of ART in two groups of patients: prevalent TB (started ART while on TB treatment), unrecognised TB (developed TB within 6 months after start ART). Results Included were 511 patients with a median baseline CD4 count of 57 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range: 22-130), of whom 368 (72%) had prevalent TB and 143 (28%) had unrecognised TB. Compared with prevalent TB, unrecognised TB was associated with lower CD4 count recovery at 96 weeks: -22.3 cells/mm(3) (95% confidence interval -43.2 to -1.5, P = 0.036). These estimates were adjusted for gender, age, baseline CD4 count and the use of zidovudine-based regimen. Conclusions Unrecognised TB at the time of ART initiation resulted in impaired CD4 recovery compared with TB treated before ART initiation. More vigilant screening with more sensitive and rapid TB diagnostics prior to ART initiation is needed to decrease the risk of ART-associated TB and sub-optimal immune reconstitution.Tropical Medicine & International Health 11/2012; 17(12). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12001 · 2.30 Impact Factor
Article: AIDS in India.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
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