To study the safety and antiretroviral effectiveness of concomitant use of rifampicin and efavirenz for antiretroviral-naïve patients in India who are coinfected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1.
The study was an observational longitudinal cohort investigation. HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of < or = 200/microL who attended the Infectious Disease Clinic of Sterling Hospital (Ahmedabad, India) from June 2001 to December 2002 were recruited for the study. Patients were divided in 2 groups: group A, patients with active TB (n = 126); and group B, patients without TB (n = 129). Group A patients were given efavirenz with 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors along with rifampicin-containing anti-TB treatment. Group B patients were treated for presenting opportunistic infections and started therapy with efavirenz plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were either zidovudine and lamivudine (n = 30) or stavudine and lamivudine (n = 225). Patients self-funded their investigations and medications (antiretroviral, anti-TB, and other opportunistic infection-related agents). Indian generic medications were used.
Efavirenz-based highly active antiretroviral therapy with rifampicin for HIV/TB-coinfected patients resulted in an immunologic response that was comparable with that of the group not receiving rifampicin. Median CD4 cell counts at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months in group A were 84/microL (range, 5-200/microL), 225/microL (range, 26-528/microL), 251/microL (range, 65-775/microL), and 275/microL (range, 61-611/microL), respectively, and in group B, these values were 118/microL (range, 2-200/microL), 244/microL (range, 38-881/microL), 294/microL (range, 23-1322/microL), and 295/microL (range, 26-991/microL), respectively. The overall increase in CD4 cell count was greater in group A than in group B at 9 months (190 vs. 176/microL, respectively). Patients in both groups tolerated the therapy well; the adverse effects profile was comparable except that group A patients had a higher incidence of hepatitis than group B patients (13.49% vs. 0, respectively; P < 0.0001).
Clinical and immunologic benefits are comparable for patients receiving efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy with or without rifampicin.
"Overall, virological suppression was achieved in 97% of patients at week 50. In various settings, excellent virological efficacy was also observed with 600 mg efavirenz co-administered daily with rifampicin, which again supports the lack of potent drug-drug interaction between rifampicin-based standard tuberculosis treatment , , , , , , . Our observation that women were at reduced risk of having lower efavirenz concentrations is in keeping with Burger et al
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess efavirenz plasma concentrations and their association with treatment efficacy and tolerance of efavirenz 600 mg daily in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients.
HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell count ≤200/mm3 received standard 6-month tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy including a daily-dose of 600 mg of efavirenz, irrespective of their body weight. Mid-dose blood samples were drawn both on tuberculosis treatment (week +2 and week +6 after antiretroviral therapy initiation, and week 22 of follow-up) and off tuberculosis treatment (week 50 of follow-up). Considered therapeutic range was 1,000 to 4,000 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL and virological failure. Linear regression was used to test the association between efavirenz exposure and CD4+ T cell gain. Severe side effects potentially related to efavirenz were described and their association with efavirenz exposure was tested by multivariate analysis.
Efavirenz plasma concentrations were available in 540 patients. Median [interquartile range] efavirenz concentrations were 2,674 ng/mL [1,690-4,533], 2,667 ng/mL [1,753-4,494] and 2,799 ng/mL [1,804-4,744] at week +2, week +6, week 22, respectively, and 2,766 ng/mL [1,941-3,976] at week 50. Efavirenz concentrations were lower at week 50 (off rifampicin) compared to week 22 (on rifampicin) (p<0.001). Late attendance to study visit and low hemoglobinemia were the only factors associated with an increased risk of efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL. Efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL was not associated with treatment failure. Efavirenz concentration above 4,000 ng/mL was associated with higher risk of central nervous system side effects (p<0.001) and of hepatotoxicity (p<0.001).
Body weight and tuberculosis treatment were not associated with low efavirenz concentrations or treatment failure, supporting the 600 mg daily-dose of efavirenz in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients. High efavirenz concentrations were related to a higher risk of central nervous system side effects and hepatotoxicity.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90350. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090350 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"We and others have previously reported the association of ART-associated TB with lower CD4 recovery (Lawn et al. 2005; Hermans et al. 2010). TB diagnosed before ART initiation was associated with impaired immune reconstitution in South Africa (Bassett et al. 2012), but not in Asia (Patel et al. 2004; Breen et al. 2006; Zhou et al. 2010). When analysing patients with prevalent and ART-associated TB together, a "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To investigate whether an unrecognised diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) influences subsequent CD4+ T cell (CD4) count recovery in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda.
In a retrospective cohort study, a multivariable polynomial mixed effects model was used to estimate CD4 recovery in the first 96 weeks of ART in two groups of patients: prevalent TB (started ART while on TB treatment), unrecognised TB (developed TB within 6 months after start ART).
Included were 511 patients with a median baseline CD4 count of 57 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range: 22-130), of whom 368 (72%) had prevalent TB and 143 (28%) had unrecognised TB. Compared with prevalent TB, unrecognised TB was associated with lower CD4 count recovery at 96 weeks: -22.3 cells/mm(3) (95% confidence interval -43.2 to -1.5, P = 0.036). These estimates were adjusted for gender, age, baseline CD4 count and the use of zidovudine-based regimen.
Unrecognised TB at the time of ART initiation resulted in impaired CD4 recovery compared with TB treated before ART initiation. More vigilant screening with more sensitive and rapid TB diagnostics prior to ART initiation is needed to decrease the risk of ART-associated TB and sub-optimal immune reconstitution.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 11/2012; 17(12). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12001 · 2.33 Impact Factor
"Gradual increase in CD4 cell counts and weight gain from baseline to 12 weeks indicates that clinical and immunologic benefits were comparable among patients receiving efavirenz based HAART with or without rifampicin . Unlike other studies that show an older age group, alcohol consumption and use of Fluconazole tablets as a risk factor for the development of DILI, in this study no such association was observed , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the timing, incidence, clinical presentation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetic predictors for antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (DILI) in HIV patients with or without TB co-infection.
A total of 473 treatment naïve HIV patients (253 HIV only and 220 with HIV-TB co-infection) were enrolled prospectively. Plasma efavirenz concentration and CYP2B6*6, CYP3A5*3, *6 and *7, ABCB1 3435C/T and SLCO1B1 genotypes were determined. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline and up to 48 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. DILI case definition was according to Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). Incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The overall incidence of DILI was 7.8% (8.3 per 1000 person-week), being non-significantly higher among patients receiving concomitant anti-TB and HAART (10.0%, 10.7 per 1000 person-week) than those receiving HAART alone (5.9%, 6.3 per 1000 person-week). Frequency of CYP2B6*6 allele (p = 0.03) and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (p = 0.06) was significantly higher in patients with DILI than those without. Multivariate cox regression model indicated that CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype and anti-HCV IgG antibody positive as significant predictors of DILI. Median time to DILI was 2 weeks after HAART initiation and no DILI onset was observed after 12 weeks. No severe DILI was seen and the gain in CD4 was similar in patients with or without DILI.
Antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis DILI does occur in our setting, presenting early following HAART initiation. DILI seen is mild, transient and may not require treatment interruption. There is good tolerance to HAART and anti-TB with similar immunological outcomes. Genetic make-up mainly CYP2B6 genotype influences the development of efavirenz based HAART liver injury in Tanzanians.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40180. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040180 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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