Article

Scaling-up HIV treatment programmes in resource-limited settings: the rural Haiti experience.

Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 6.56). 07/2004; 18 Suppl 3:S21-5. DOI: 10.1097/00002030-200406003-00005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To scale-up a successful HIV/AIDS treatment project and provide comprehensive care to an entire Département du Centre (population 550 000) in rural Haiti, thereby demonstrating that community-based treatment of HIV is feasible and highly effective in resource-limited settings, and serving as a successful model for others to replicate.
In the Département du Centre of rural Haiti comprehensive HIV and tuberculosis treatment is provided free of charge to anyone who presents for care. All those who meet clinical enrolment criteria are treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
HAART was provided in the context of a comprehensive programme of HIV, tuberculosis (TB), sexually transmitted disease (STD) of the project, treatment and prevention, and women's health services at four sites in the first year. At each site, the medical facility was renovated, additional staff were hired as needed, and a network of accompagnateurs (community health workers) was established throughout the surrounding villages to serve as a link with the community, and to provide directly observed treatment (DOT).
In the first year of programme scale-up, over 8000 patients were followed for HIV, and over 1050 were treated with DOT HAART. Adherence to HAART was very high, and clinical outcomes were excellent: all patients responded with weight gain and improved functional capacity, and fewer than 5% required medication changes due to side effects. Viral load was tested among a subset of patients showing that 86% had undetectable viral loads.
Community-based care of AIDS has been highly effective in rural Haiti. With more international financial support for HIV/AIDS treatment in resource-limited settings, there should be no barriers to access to life-saving HAART for those who need it most.

1 Follower
 · 
103 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Educational policy-makers around the world are strongly committed to the notion of 'scaling up'. This can mean anything from encouraging more teachers to take up a pedagogical innovation, all the way through to system-wide efforts to implement 'what works' across all schools. In this paper, I use Bourdieu's notions of misrecognition to consider the current orthodoxies of scaling up. I argue that the focus on 'process' and 'implementation problems': (1) both obscures and legitimates the ways in which the field logics of practice actually work and, (2) produces/reproduces the inequitable distribution of educational benefits (capitals and life opportunities). I suggest that the notion of misrecognition might provide a useful lens through which to examine reform initiatives and explanations of their success/failure.
    Critical Studies in Education 02/2014; 55(2):87-103. DOI:10.1080/17508487.2014.863221
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In an attempt to address a complex disease burden, including improving progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, South Africa recently introduced a re-engineered Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy, which has led to the development of a national community health worker (CHW) programme. The present study explored the development of a cell phone-based and paper-based monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to support the work of the CHWs. Methods One sub-district in the North West province was identified for the evaluation. One outreach team comprising ten CHWs maintained both the paper forms and mHealth system to record household data on community-based services. A comparative analysis was done to calculate the correspondence between the paper and phone records. A focus group discussion was conducted with the CHWs. Clinical referrals, data accuracy and supervised visits were compared and analysed for the paper and phone systems. Results Compared to the mHealth system where data accuracy was assured, 40% of the CHWs showed a consistently high level (>90% correspondence) of data transfer accuracy on paper. Overall, there was an improvement over time, and by the fifth month, all CHWs achieved a correspondence of 90% or above between phone and paper data. The most common error that occurred was summing the total number of visits and/or activities across the five household activity indicators. Few supervised home visits were recorded in either system and there was no evidence of the team leader following up on the automatic notifications received on their cell phones. Conclusions The evaluation emphasizes the need for regular supervision for both systems and rigorous and ongoing assessments of data quality for the paper system. Formalization of a mHealth M&E system for PHC outreach teams delivering community based services could offer greater accuracy of M&E and enhance supervision systems for CHWs.
    BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 08/2014; 14(1):69. DOI:10.1186/1472-6947-14-69 · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the Indian NACP is low and is facilitated by the low cost of mobile communication in the country. Extending the use of mobile communication applications beyond adherence support under the national programme could be done relatively inexpensively.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 09/2014; 17(1):19036. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.1.19036 · 4.21 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
278 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014