Mutation E522K in human DNA topoisomerase IIbeta confers resistance to methyl N-(4′-(9-acridinylamino)-phenyl)carbamate hydrochloride and methyl N-(4′-(9-acridinylamino)-3-methoxy-phenyl) methane sulfonamide but hypersensitivity to etoposide. Mol Pharmacol 66(3): 430-439
Human cells express two isoforms of topoisomerase II, alpha and beta, that are both targeted by anticancer drugs. To investigate acridine resistance mediated by topoisomerase IIbeta, we used a forced molecular evolution approach. A library of mutated topoisomerase IIbeta cDNAs was generated by hydroxylamine mutagenesis and was transformed into the yeast JN394 top2-4. Methyl N-(4'-(9-acridinylamino)-phenyl)carbamate hydrochloride (AMCA) selection identified a resistant transformant able to grow in media containing 76 microg/ml AMCA. Topoisomerase IIbeta with a glutamic acid-to-lysine substitution at position 522 was responsible for the approximately 10-fold resistance to AMCA. The transformant was cross-resistant to methyl N-(4'-(9-acridinylamino)-3-methoxy-phenyl) methane sulfonamide (mAMSA) and mAMCA but hypersensitive to etoposide and ellipticine. In vitro, the betaE522K protein was unable to support acridine-stimulated DNA cleavage, suggesting that resistance to these acridines is caused by reduced drug-stimulated DNA cleavage. However, betaE522K showed DNA cleavage with etoposide, and the cleavable complexes formed with etoposide showed greater stability, thus accounting for the hypersensitivity to etoposide. Drug-independent cleavage of an oligonucleotide by betaE522K was reduced compared with the wild-type enzyme. Decatenation and relaxation activities were reduced to 52 and 61% of the wild-type levels, which may explain the slower growth of yeast strain JN394top2-4 expressing betaE522K at the nonpermissive temperature. This study confirms that topoisomerase IIbeta is a target for AMCA and that resistance to AMCA can be mediated by a point mutation at Glu522 in topoisomerase IIbeta. Residue 522 lies within a Rossmann fold in the B' subfragment of topoisomerase II, a region previously implicated in drug interactions.
"Whether one or two ions are needed for cleavage, and which ions these are, requires further study. In addition to a catalytic role, metal ions have also been reported to play a structural role in type II topoisomerase –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type II DNA topoisomerases are essential, ubiquitous enzymes that act to relieve topological problems arising in DNA from normal cellular activity. Their mechanism of action involves the ATP-dependent transport of one DNA duplex through a transient break in a second DNA duplex; metal ions are essential for strand passage. Humans have two isoforms, topoisomerase IIα and topoisomerase IIβ, that have distinct roles in the cell. The C-terminal domain has been linked to isoform specific differences in activity and DNA interaction.
We have investigated the role of the C-terminal domain in the binding of human topoisomerase IIα and topoisomerase IIβ to DNA in fluorescence anisotropy assays using full length and C-terminally truncated enzymes. We find that the C-terminal domain of topoisomerase IIβ but not topoisomerase IIα affects the binding of the enzyme to the DNA. The presence of metal ions has no effect on DNA binding. Additionally, we have examined strand passage of the full length and truncated enzymes in the presence of a number of supporting metal ions and find that there is no difference in relative decatenation between isoforms. We find that calcium and manganese, in addition to magnesium, can support strand passage by the human topoisomerase II enzymes.
The C-terminal domain of topoisomerase IIβ, but not that of topoisomerase IIα, alters the enzyme's K(D) for DNA binding. This is consistent with previous data and may be related to the differential modes of action of the two isoforms in vivo. We also show strand passage with different supporting metal ions for human topoisomerase IIα or topoisomerase IIβ, either full length or C-terminally truncated. They all show the same preferences, whereby Mg > Ca > Mn.
PLoS ONE 02/2011; 6(2):e14693. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0014693 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos) are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity.
We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity.
In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro data with chimeric human topoIIs.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(3):e1754. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0001754 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Resistance to Topo II drugs is a clinical problem, and may arise via a variety of mechanisms. Mutations affecting the way the drug interacts with the enzyme can cause resistance (27). Alternatively reduced enzyme activity gives fewer functional molecules to target and reduced protein expression gives the same effect (28–30). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type II Human DNA Topoisomerases (topos II) play an essential role in DNA replication and transcription and are important targets for cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Topoisomerase II causes transient double-strand breaks in DNA, forming a gate through which another double helix is passed, and acts as a DNA dependent ATPase. Mutations in topoII have been linked to atypical multi-drug resistance. Both human Topoisomerase II isoforms, alpha and beta, are targeted by amsacrine. We have used a forced molecular evolution approach to identify mutations conferring resistance to acridines. Here we report mutation betaG465D, which was selected with mAMSA and DACA and is cross-resistant to etoposide, ellipticine and doxorubicin. Resistance to mAMSA appears to decrease over time indicating a previously unreported resistance mechanism. G465D lies within the B' domain in the region that contacts the cleaved gate helix. There is a 3-fold decrease in ATP affinity and ATP hydrolysis and an altered requirement for magnesium in decatenation assays. The decatenation rate is decreased for the mutated G465D protein. And we report for the first time the use of fluorescence anisotropy with intact human topoisomerase II.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2006; 34(5):1597-607. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkl057 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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