Use of the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an early marker for future development of osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs
ABSTRACT To determine the relationship between the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte (CCO) and osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs.
Longitudinal cohort study.
48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.
In each of 24 sex- and size-matched pairs fed the same diet, a restricted-fed dog was fed 25% less than a control dog for life. The dogs' hips were evaluated in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic projection at 16, 30, and 52 weeks of age and then yearly for life. Histologic examination of hip joint tissues was performed on 45 dogs.
Median age at death was 11.2 years. Adjusting for feeding group, dogs with a CCO were 3.7 times as likely to develop radiographic signs of osteoarthritis than those without a CCO. Stratified by diet, 100% of the control dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis and 55% of restricted-fed dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. The CCO was the first radiographic change seen in 22 of 29 (76%) dogs with osteoarthritis. Overall, 35 of 37 (95%) dogs with a CCO had histopathologic lesions of osteoarthritis.
Results indicate a relationship between a CCO on the femoral neck and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis in Labrador Retrievers evaluated over their life span. A CCO is an important early radiographic indication of osteoarthritis associated with canine hip dysplasia.
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- "Hip dysplasia (HD) is a multifactorial, genetically determined biomechanical development disease (usually bilateral), characterised by inadequality formed hip joints that is later accompanied by secondary degenerative joint arthrosis. Different forms of hip dysplasia occur in various species of animals including human beings, but as an important clinical problem it is just in dogs because the hip joints form an anatomical structure that holds the caudal part of dog's body on two spherical surfaces – femoral heads, and they are involved into various body movements and positions (Morgan; 1988; Powers et al., 2004). Also, such a factor shows evidence of the importance of this problem that heredity of HD has been established in 14 generations (Белов и др.1990). "
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ABSTRACT: To estimate prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and identify sources of bias in published reports. Prospective study. 200 clinically normal Golden Retrievers and 140 clinically normal Rottweilers between 24 and 60 months of age referred for hip evaluation (group 1) and 93 clinically normal dogs evaluated for Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip certification (group 2). Hip-extended pelvic radiographs from group 1 dogs were screened for CHD. Radiographs were evaluated twice; the first interpretation used an OFA-type subjective 7-point scoring system, and the second included the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an additional sign of degenerative joint disease. The OFA submission rate of group 2 dogs was determined from the number of official reports returned from the OFA. Prevalence of CHD in Golden Retrievers ranged from 53% to 73% and in Rottweilers ranged from 41% to 69%. Among dogs referred for OFA evaluation, radiographs from 49 (53%) were submitted to OFA. Of submitted radiographs, 45 (92%) were normal; of radiographs not submitted, 22 (50%) were normal. Radiographs with normal-appearing hips were 8.2 times as likely to be submitted to the OFA. Compared with Golden Retrievers, Rottweiler radiographs were significantly more likely to be submitted for OFA certification. Prevalence of CHD in these 2 breeds may be much higher than previously reported in the United States. Results suggest substantial bias in the OFA database, which causes lower estimates of prevalence of CHD.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 03/2005; 226(3):387-92. DOI:10.2460/javma.2005.226.387 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) and determine whether there were correlations between forces and passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies. Fifty-one 16-week-old hound-breed dogs. Force-plate gait evaluation and distraction radiographic imaging were performed. Ground reaction forces evaluated included x (mediolateral), y (craniocaudal breaking and propulsion), and z (vertical) peak force and impulse. Z-plane limb loading and unloading rates, loading interval, and weight distribution and y-plane stance time breaking and propulsion percentages were calculated. One-way ANOVA with the Duncan multiple range test was used to evaluate differences in gait variables among limbs. The relationships of left, right, highest, and mean distraction index (DI) with individual limb data of each dog were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation. Left and right DIs were compared by means of linear regression analysis. Mean +/- SEM DI was 0.67 +/- 0.02. Left and right DIs were strongly correlated, but there were no significant relationships between DIs and gait variables. Most fore- and hind limb gait variables differed significantly, whereas paired fore- and hind limb gait variables did not. Asymmetry was most pronounced in the x- and y-planes. GRFs were consistent with those of clinically normal mature dogs, supporting an absence of association between GRF and DI in young dogs. The GRFs and elucidation of the relationship between GRFs and DI may be useful for future studies in immature dogs.American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2006; 67(2):236-41. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.67.2.236 · 1.34 Impact Factor