Predictors of acamprosate efficacy: results from a pooled analysis of seven European trials including 1485 alcohol-dependent patients.
ABSTRACT Acamprosate is a proven effective intervention in the treatment of alcohol dependence. However, acamprosate prevents lapses or relapses only in a minority of patients. An important question, therefore, is whether there is a specific subgroup of patients who respond particularly well to acamprosate.
To identify predictors of acamprosate efficacy. Based upon the available evidence and hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying acamprosate's effects on drinking behavior, the following variables were considered to be potential positive predictors: high physiological dependence at baseline, negative family history of alcoholism, late age-of-onset, serious anxiety symptomatology at baseline, severe craving at baseline, and female gender.
Potential predictors of acamprosate's efficacy were analyzed in a pooled analysis of data from seven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving a total of 1485 patients with alcohol dependence. Outcome is measured in terms of cumulative abstinence duration (CAD), continuous abstinence (ABST), and time to first relapse (TFR).
CAD and ABST were predicted by baseline measures of craving and anxiety, as well as by study and treatment condition. Acamprosate efficacy was not differentially associated with any of the predictor variables. Importantly, the hypotheses were rejected despite the large sample size and sufficient statistical power.
The most straight-forward clinical implication of this study is that acamprosate can be considered as a potentially effective pharmacotherapy for all patients with alcohol dependence. The effect size of acamprosate alone is, however, moderate. Some evidence indicates that the combination of acamprosate with naltrexone or disulfiram leads to substantially better outcomes.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Roel Verheul, May 16, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Avinash Desousa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Disulfiram remains a viable option as a treatment for alcohol dependence and has been shown in recent studies to be successful in treating patients with alco-hol dependence in a manner that is superior to both naltrexone and acamprosate. It is also useful in dual diagnosis patients and those with co-morbid cocaine and alcohol dependence. Although disulfiram's me-chanism of action in alcohol dependence was long thought to be its effects as a psychological deterrent, more recent studies have uncovered potential anti-craving effects as well. Recent reviews exhort to the importance of supervised disulfiram therapy in high-lighting many of the potential and unique benefits of disulfiram. The present article will review the major clinical trials of disulfiram spanning nearly 60 years. It also discusses the usage of disulfiram across diverse populations along with monitoring for compliance and various adverse effects that may be encountered. The paper also reviews certain studies on long acting di-sulfiram therapy, recent comparative trials of disul-firam and its use in alcohol dependence. The review concludes with the role of disulfiram in the present day and long-term pharmacotherapy of alcohol de-pendence along with future research needs in this area.Open Journal of Psychiatry 01/2014; 4(1):43-52. DOI:10.4236/ojpsych.2014.41007
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ABSTRACT: Background: Glutamate system is modified by ethanol and contributes both to the euphoric and the dysphoric consequences of intoxication, but there is now growing evidence that the glutamatergic system also plays a central role in the neurobiology and treatment of mood disorders, including major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. We speculate that, using acamprosate, patients with bipolar depression (BIP-A) can take advantage of the anti-glutamate effect of acamprosate to "survive" in treatment longer than peers suffering from non-bipolar depression (NBIP-A) after detoxification. Method: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of a long-term (six-month) acamprosate treatment, after alcohol detoxification, in 41 patients (19 males and 22 females), who could be classified as depressed alcoholics, while taking into account the presence/absence of bipolarity. Results: During the period of observation most NBIP-A patients relapsed, whereas a majority of BIP-A patients were still in treatment at the end of their period of observation. The cumulative proportion of 'surviving' patients was significantly higher in BIP-A patients, but this finding was not related to gender or to other demographic or clinically investigated characteristics. The treatment time effect was significant in both subgroups. The treatment time-group effect was significant (and significantly better) for bipolar patients on account of changes in the severity of their illness. Limitations: Retrospective methodology and the lack of DSM criteria in diagnosing bipolarity. Conclusions: Bipolarity seems to be correlated with the efficacy of acamprosate treatment in inducing patients to refrain from alcohol use after detoxification (while avoiding relapses) in depressed alcoholics. Placebo-controlled clinical trials are now warranted to check the validity of this hypothesis.International journal of environmental research and public health 12/2014; 11. DOI:10.3390/ijerph111212983 · 1.61 Impact Factor
Suchttherapie 11/2013; 14(04):170-177. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1355362 · 0.28 Impact Factor