Oral delivery of spray dried PLGA/amifostine nanoparticles
ABSTRACT Amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721) is a cytoprotective drug approved by the US Food & Drug Administration for intravenous administration in cancer patients receiving radiation therapy and certain forms of chemotherapy. The primary objective of this project was to develop orally active amifostine nanoparticles using spray drying technique. Two different nanoparticle formulations (Amifostine-PLGA (0.4:1.0 and 1.0:1.0)) were prepared using a Buchi B191 Mini Spray Dryer. A water-in-oil emulsion of amifostine and PLGA (RG 502) was spray dried using an airflow of 600 L h(-1) and input temperature of 55 degrees C. A tissue distribution study in mice was conducted following oral administration of the formulation containing drug-polymer (0.4:1.0). The efficiency of encapsulation was 90% and 100%, respectively, for the two formulations while the median particle sizes were 257 and 240 nm, with 90% confidence between 182 and 417 nm. Since amifostine is metabolized to its active form, WR-1065, by intracellular alkaline phosphatase, the tissue levels of WR-1065 were measured, instead of WR-2721. WR-1065 was detected in significant amounts in all tissues, including bone marrow, jejunum and the kidneys, and there was some degree of selectivity in its distribution in various tissues. This work demonstrates the feasibility of developing an orally effective formulation of amifostine that can be used clinically.
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ABSTRACT: Amifostine (ethiofos, WR-2721) is an organic thiophosphate prodrug that serves as an antineoplastic adjunct and cytoprotective agent useful in cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The selective protection of certain tissues of the body is believed to be due to higher alkaline phosphatase activity, higher pH and vascular permeation of normal tissues. Amifostine is conventionally administered intravenously before chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to reduce cumulative renal toxicity associated with repeated administration of cisplatin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. It was originally indicated to reduce the cumulative renal toxicity from cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer although this indication was withdrawn in 2005. Amifostine is also FDA approved for patients with head and neck cancer to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia in patients who are undergoing postoperative radiation treatment where the radiation port includes a substantial portion of the parotid glands. The potential of amifostine as a cytoprotective agent is unlikely to be fully realized if the method of administration is restricted to intravenous administration. Attempts have been made to develop non-invasive methods of delivery such as transdermal patches, pulmonary inhalers, and oral sustained-release microspheres. It is the goal of this article to explore non-intravenous routes of administration associated with better efficacy of the drug. This review will primarily focus on the variety of more recently studied (2002 and later) alternative modes for amifostine administration, including subcutaneous, intrarectal and oral routes.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 08/2008; 60(7):809-15. DOI:10.1211/jpp.60.7.0001 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Includes abstract and vita. Thesis (Ph.D.)--Drexel University, 2006. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 196).