UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase with broad substrate specificity toward various monosaccharide 1-phosphates from pea sprouts.
ABSTRACT UDP-sugars, activated forms of monosaccharides, are synthesized through de novo and salvage pathways and serve as substrates for the synthesis of polysaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins in higher plants. A UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase, designated PsUSP, was purified about 1,200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) sprouts by conventional chromatography. The apparent molecular mass of the purified PsUSP was 67,000 Da. The enzyme catalyzed the formation of UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-l-arabinose, and UDP-xylose from respective monosaccharide 1-phosphates in the presence of UTP as a co-substrate, indicating that the enzyme has broad substrate specificity toward monosaccharide 1-phosphates. Maximum activity of the enzyme occurred at pH 6.5-7.5, and at 45 degrees C in the presence of 2 mm Mg(2+). The apparent K(m) values for Glc 1-phosphate and l-arabinose 1-phosphate were 0.34 and 0.96 mm, respectively. PsUSP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase-PCR. PsUSP appears to encode a protein with a molecular mass of 66,040 Da (600 amino acids) and possesses a uridine-binding site, which has also been found in a human UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pyrophosphorylase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PsUSP can be categorized in a group together with homologues from Arabidopsis and rice, which is distinct from the UDP-Glc and UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pyrophosphorylase groups. Recombinant PsUSP expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the formation of UDP-sugars from monosaccharide 1-phosphates and UTP with efficiency similar to that of the native enzyme. These results indicate that the enzyme is a novel type of UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase, which catalyzes the formation of various UDP-sugars at the end of salvage pathways in higher plants.
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ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (AtUSP, EC 18.104.22.168) is a broad substrate pyrophosphorylase that exhibits activity with GlcA-1-P, Gal-1-P and Glc-1-P. Immunoblots using polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant AtUSP demonstrated the presence of two USP isoforms of approximately 70 kDa (USP1) and 66 kDa (USP2) in crude extracts of Arabidopsis tissues. The 66 kDa isoform was not the result of proteolytic cleavage of USP1 during extraction. Trypsin digestion of bands on SDS gels corresponding to the location of the two isoforms followed by tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that USP peptides were present in both bands. Both USP isoforms were detected in the cytosol as determined by immunoblots of cellular fractions obtained by differential centrifugation. However, some USP1 was also detected in the microsomal fraction. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that AtUSP antibodies removed USP activity (UDP-GlcA→GlcA-1-P) measured in floret extracts. These results indicate that USP is the only pyrophosphorylase that utilizes UDP-GlcA as a substrate and suggest that it serves as the terminal enzyme of the myo-inositol oxidation pathway.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry.
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ABSTRACT: At5g52560, a homolog of pea (Pisum sativum) UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (PsUSP) was functionally annotated by expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent characterization of substrate specificity and kinetic properties. Arabidopsis contains a single USP gene (AtUSP) and evaluation of gene databases suggests that USP is unique to plants. The 69 kDa AtUSP gene product exhibited high activity with Glc-1-P, GlcA-1-P and Gal-1-P, but low activity with GlcNAc-1-P, Fuc-1-P, Man-1-P, inositol-1-P or Glc-6-P. AtUSP was activated by magnesium and preferred UTP as co-substrate. Apparent K(m) values for GlcA-1-P, Glc-1-P and UTP were 0.13 mM, 0.42 mM and 0.14 mM, respectively. In the reverse direction (pyrophosphorolysis), the apparent K(m) values for UDP-GlcA, UDP-Glc and pyrophosphate were 0.56 mM, 0.72 mM and 0.15 mM, respectively. USP enzyme activity (UDP-GlcA --> GlcA-1-P) was detected in Arabidopsis tissues with highest activity found in the inflorescence. As determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, AtUSP transcript is widely expressed with high levels detected in the inflorescence. To evaluate tissue-specific expression of AtUSP, histochemical GUS staining of plants transformed with AtUSPprom:GUS constructs was performed. In 7-day-old seedlings, GUS staining was detected in cotyledons, trichomes and vascular tissues of the primary root. In the inflorescence of older plants, high levels of GUS staining were detected in cauline leaves, the epidermis of the stem and in pollen. In silico analysis of AtUSP expression in developing pollen indicates that transcript levels increase as development proceeds from the uninucleate to the tricellular stage. The results suggest that AtUSP plays an important role in pollen development in Arabidopsis.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 04/2006; 44(4):171-80. · 2.84 Impact Factor