Comparison of Dynamic Contour Tonometry with Goldmann Applanation Tonometry

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science (Impact Factor: 3.4). 10/2004; 45(9):3118-21. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.04-0018
Source: PubMed


The dynamic contour tonometer (DCT; Pascal tonometer) is a novel tonometer designed to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) independent of corneal properties. The purpose of this study was a comparison of the DCT with the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) with respect to mean of IOP readings, the influence of ocular structural factors on IOP readings, and both intra- and interobserver variability, in a large group of healthy subjects.
In a prospective study of 228 eyes, IOP measurements by GAT and DCT were compared, and the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature, axial length, and anterior chamber depth were analyzed. To evaluate intra- and interobserver variability, IOP was measured in eight eyes by four observers.
There was a high concordance between the IOP readings obtained by DCT and GAT. However, IOP readings were consistently higher with DCT than with GAT (median difference: +1.7 mm Hg, interquartile range [25th-75th percentile] = 0.8-2.7 mm Hg). In contrast to GAT, multivariable regression analysis showed no significant effect of corneal thickness, corneal curvature, astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, and axial length on DCT readings. For repeated measurements the intraobserver variability was 0.65 mm Hg for the DCT and 1.1 mm Hg for the GAT (P = 0.008). Interobserver variability was 0.44 mm Hg for the DCT and 1.28 mm Hg for the GAT (P = 0.017).
IOP measurements by DCT are highly concordant with IOP readings obtained from GAT but do not vary in CCT and have a lower intra- and interobserver variability. DCT seems to be an appropriate method of tonometry for routine clinical use.

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Available from: Michael A Thiel, Nov 26, 2014
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    • "DCT is a method to measure IOP by using a pressure-sensitive tip that is closely shaped following the corneal curvature to minimize the corneal deformation. The forces of both sides of the cornea are meant to be nearly equal during the measurement.7 DCT measurements have been shown to be independent of structural changes of the cornea such as corneal edema or CCT.4,9–13,20,21 However, some authors describe that DCT is not completely independent from central corneal thickness or corneal edema.14,22–26 "
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    ABSTRACT: Intraocular pressure (IOP) determination using dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) has been considered to be independent of central corneal thickness (CCT), while Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) is known to be influenced by various corneal properties. In this study, IOP was measured before and 1 day after cataract surgery using GAT and DCT to investigate the possible effects of corneal edema on IOP measurements. Thirty patients with advanced cataracts were included in a pilot study. IOP was measured using GAT and DCT before and 1 day after phacoemulsification. CCT was determined before and after surgery to quantify postsurgical corneal edema. CCT increased significantly (by 89.7 ± 107.4 μm, P < 0.0001) 1 day after surgery. No significant difference was found for IOP measurements using GAT and DCT before surgery (mean IOP GAT: 17.5 ± 5.7 mmHg; mean IOP DCT: 17.9 ± 6.4 mmHg; P = 0.67) and 1 day after surgery (mean IOP GAT: 16.1 ± 6.6 mmHg; mean IOP DCT: 16.8 ± 8.3 mmHg; P = 0.69). IOP values using GAT and DCT were significantly correlated before as well as 1 day after surgery (before surgery: r = 0.82, P < 0.0001; after surgery r = 0.83, P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed a high variability in the difference in IOP measurements between methods before and 1 day after surgery. GAT and DCT seem to be equally valuable in IOP determination in postsurgical central corneal edema, although large differences between both methods are present in individual patients. IOP evaluation in corneal edema remains a difficult clinical challenge.
    Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 05/2013; 7:815-9. DOI:10.2147/OPTH.S44412
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    • "sidered the gold standard of IOP measurement, chiefly, for its relatively low intra-and interobserver variability (Dielemans et al. 1994; Kaufmann et al. 2004). GAT, however, has two major drawbacks compared with rebound tonometer: (i) the use of topical anaesthetic and fluorescein dye, which can cause discomfort to patients and, rarely, allergic reaction (el Harrar et al. 1996; Boezaart et al. 2000); (ii) the use of slit-lamp biomicroscopy , which makes complicates IOP measurement for the handicapped , the elderly and children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of a new rebound tonometer, Icare(®) PRO (Icare PRO), by comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in a study on patients with glaucoma. Methods: One hundred and seventy-two eyes of 86 subjects were enrolled in this study. All of the subjects were examined with an autorefractometer, Icare PRO, slit-lamp biomicroscope, GAT, ultrasound A-scan and pachymeter. Three intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were obtained by Icare PRO and GAT. The intraobserver reliabilities were established by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficients. The Bland-Altman plot was used to compare the Icare PRO and GAT. Results: There was a good correlation between the IOP measurement by GAT and that by Icare PRO (r = 0.6995, p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficients of Icare PRO and GAT were 0.778 and 0.955, respectively. The IOP differences between Icare PRO and GAT (mean: 1.92 mmHg; SD: 3.29 mmHg; 95% limit of agreement: -4.52 to 8.37 mmHg) did not vary over the wide range of central corneal thickness (p = 0.498), age (p = 0.248), axial length (p = 0.277) or spherical equivalent (p = 0.075). Conclusions: Although IOP with Icare PRO was higher than that with GAT, especially at lower GAT IOP value, Icare PRO was found to be a reliable method and showed a good correlation with GAT. The IOP difference between Icare PRO and GAT was not affected by the central corneal thickness, age, axial length or spherical equivalent. Icare PRO can be expected not only to be a good screening tool but also to be a good substitute for GAT.
    Acta ophthalmologica 03/2013; 91(5). DOI:10.1111/aos.12109 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    • "The increased corneal thickness in patients with DSAEK, however, does not affect IOP measurements by GAT as reported by Vajaranant et al. [55] and others [56]. Additional dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) and pneumotonometry which may measure IOP independent of corneal thickness, curvature, and hydration within certain ranges of IOP may be useful methods to measure IOP following DSAEK [57–60]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glaucoma after corneal transplantation is a leading cause of ocular morbidity after penetrating keratoplasty. The incidence reported is highly variable and a number of etiologic factors have been identified. A number of treatment options are available; surgical intervention for IOP control is associated with a high incidence of graft failure. IOP elevation is less frequently seen following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Descemet's striping-automated endothelial keratoplasty is also associated with postprocedure intraocular pressure elevation and secondary glaucoma and presents unique surgical challenges in patients with preexisting glaucoma surgeries. Glaucoma exists in up to three-quarters of patients who undergo keratoprosthesis surgery and the management if often challenging. The aim of this paper is to highlight the incidence, etiology, and management of glaucoma following different corneal transplant procedures. It also focuses on the challenges in the diagnosis of glaucoma and intraocular pressure monitoring in this group of patients.
    Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2012; 2012:576394. DOI:10.1155/2012/576394 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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