Factors affecting incorrect paternity assignment in the Israeli Holstein population.
ABSTRACT A total of 6040 Israeli Holstein cows from 181 Kibbutz herds listed as progeny of 11 sires were genotyped for 104 microsatellites. Seventeen markers were deleted due to a frequency of erroneous genotypes >1%, leaving 160,470 valid genotypes. Conflicts between the putative sire and daughter in at least 2 markers and for at least 10% of the markers genotyped per cow were required to reject paternity. Cows that did not meet the requirements for paternity confirmation or rejection were deleted from further analysis. The frequency of rejected paternity was 11.7%. The effects of recorded sire, birth year, geographical region, herd, and inseminator on the frequency of paternity rejection were analyzed with linear and nonlinear models. Only the effects of inseminator and recorded sire were significant in all models tested that included these effects. The main causes of incorrect paternity recording appear to be inseminator recording mistakes, and possibly mistakes with respect to semen labeling at the AI institutes. Incorrect paternity recording due to multiple inseminations by different sires could explain, at most, 20% of the paternity mistakes. Instituting a system of quality control, especially at the level of the inseminator, should reduce paternity errors to no more than 8%, and increase genetic progress by at least 1%.
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ABSTRACT: Pedigree is an important information source in the studies on human genetics and animal/plant breeding. Pedigree error is a common data error in breeding practice. It can affect the reliability of results from researches such as gene mapping, genetic or phenotypic value prediction. By using genetic markers, several approaches can identify the suspected pedigrees, but most of them are complex and the allowed number of genetic markers is limited, such as Cervus. Since the wide use of high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human genetic and animal/plant breeding, a new parentage identification approach (named EasyPC, Easy Pedigree Checking) based on whole genome genetic data was proposed in this study. EasyPC was compared with Cervus on efficiency, and validated with a Chinese Holstein cattle (n=2180) and a Duroc swine (n=191) population. Results showed that EasyPC was much less time demanding than Cervus, and pedigree error rates were 20% for cattle and 6% for swine. Result from the cattle population is in accordance with previous study. By analyzing the empirical distribation of Mendelian error rate calculated in a population using all available SNPs, EasyPC not only can identify the correctness of a pedigree in a simple, fast, and accurate manner, but also can correct the wrong pedigree. EasyPC provides a promising alternative solution to traditional pedigree correction approaches and eases the data analysis of whole genome related studies.08/2014; 36(8):835-41.
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ABSTRACT: Brazilian goats are generally kept in small herds and extensive rearing systems, mainly in the northeastern region of the country. Despite production improvement in recent years, the lack of pedigree control has affected genetic progress. This study aimed to validate a panel of 16 microsatellites for parentage testing in locally adapted and commercial goats breeds raised in Brazil, as well as to compare its efficiency with the panel recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supplies (MAPA) in 2004. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity (He) per marker ranged from four to 18, and from 0.051 to 0.831, respectively. Using all markers, 100% of parentage cases of the validation dataset were resolved with a strict confidence level of 95%. The 16 microsatellites panel showed adequate exclusion power (99.99%) and identity accuracy (99.99%). Suggestions for improvement of the marker panel endorsed by MAPA are provided.Genetics and Molecular Biology 03/2014; 37(1):54-60. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To develop an efficient DNA typing system for Chinese Holstein cattle, 17 microsatellites, which were amplified in four fluorescent multiplex reactions and genotyped by two capillary electrophoresis injections, were evaluated for parentage verification and identity test. These markers were highly polymorphic with a mean of 8.35 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.711 in 371 individuals. Parentage exclusion probability with only one sampled parent was approximately 0.999. Parentage exclusion probability when another parent’ genotype was known was over 0.99999. Overall probability of identity, i.e. the probability that two animals share a common genotype by chance, was . In a test case of parentage assignment, the 17 loci assigned 31 out of 33 cows to the pedigree sires with 95% confidence, while 2 cows were excluded from the paternity relationship with candidate sires. The results demonstrated the high efficacy of the 17 markers in parentage analysis and individual identification for Chinese Holstein cattle.Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 04/2010; 23(4). · 0.56 Impact Factor