Factors affecting incorrect paternity assignment in the Israeli Holstein population.
ABSTRACT A total of 6040 Israeli Holstein cows from 181 Kibbutz herds listed as progeny of 11 sires were genotyped for 104 microsatellites. Seventeen markers were deleted due to a frequency of erroneous genotypes >1%, leaving 160,470 valid genotypes. Conflicts between the putative sire and daughter in at least 2 markers and for at least 10% of the markers genotyped per cow were required to reject paternity. Cows that did not meet the requirements for paternity confirmation or rejection were deleted from further analysis. The frequency of rejected paternity was 11.7%. The effects of recorded sire, birth year, geographical region, herd, and inseminator on the frequency of paternity rejection were analyzed with linear and nonlinear models. Only the effects of inseminator and recorded sire were significant in all models tested that included these effects. The main causes of incorrect paternity recording appear to be inseminator recording mistakes, and possibly mistakes with respect to semen labeling at the AI institutes. Incorrect paternity recording due to multiple inseminations by different sires could explain, at most, 20% of the paternity mistakes. Instituting a system of quality control, especially at the level of the inseminator, should reduce paternity errors to no more than 8%, and increase genetic progress by at least 1%.
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ABSTRACT: Brazilian goats are generally kept in small herds and extensive rearing systems, mainly in the northeastern region of the country. Despite production improvement in recent years, the lack of pedigree control has affected genetic progress. This study aimed to validate a panel of 16 microsatellites for parentage testing in locally adapted and commercial goats breeds raised in Brazil, as well as to compare its efficiency with the panel recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supplies (MAPA) in 2004. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity (He) per marker ranged from four to 18, and from 0.051 to 0.831, respectively. Using all markers, 100% of parentage cases of the validation dataset were resolved with a strict confidence level of 95%. The 16 microsatellites panel showed adequate exclusion power (99.99%) and identity accuracy (99.99%). Suggestions for improvement of the marker panel endorsed by MAPA are provided.Genetics and Molecular Biology 03/2014; 37(1):54-60. DOI:10.1590/S1415-47572014000100010 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a PCR based microsatellite markers multiplex system for parentage verification of Sicilian Valle del Belice dairy sheep. A total of 85 samples of blood and hair were collected and genotyped for 24 microsatellite markers in multiplex electrophoresis runs. A total of 269 alleles were detected across the 24 loci investigated. The PIC considering all loci was equal to 0.736, showing that this microsatellite panel was very polymorphic and highly informative. A parentage test was performed on 64 families generated with multiple sires. Results indicated 20.3% and 29.7% misidentification rates for females and males, respectively. In 8 cases, out of 13 maternal exclusions, the real mother was identified among other females within the flock. The observed misidentification rates indicated the necessity of keeping more efficient collection of genealogical records, in order to properly control inbreeding or implement a breeding program. The parentage test presented here could be a helpful tool on verifying or even reconstructing the current pedigree data of Valle del Belice dairy sheep breed.Small Ruminant Research 05/2013; 113(1). DOI:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2013.03.021 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset.Frontiers in Genetics 01/2013; 4:176. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00176