Skeletal muscle atrophy leads to loss and dysfunction of muscle precursor cells
ABSTRACT Atrophy of skeletal muscle leads to decreases in myofiber size and nuclear number; however, the effects of atrophic conditions on muscle precursor cells (MPC) are largely unknown. MPC lie outside myofibers and represent the main source of additional myonuclei necessary for muscle growth and repair. In the present study, we examined the properties of MPC after hindlimb suspension (HS)-induced atrophy and subsequent recovery of the mouse hindlimb muscles. We demonstrated that the number of MPC in atrophied muscles was decreased. RT-PCR analysis of cells isolated from atrophied muscles indicated that several mRNA characteristic of the myogenic program in MPC were absent. Cells isolated from atrophied muscles failed to properly proliferate and undergo differentiation into multinucleated myotubes. Thus atrophy led to a decrease in MPC and caused dysfunction in those MPC that remained. Upon regrowth of the atrophied muscles, these deleterious effects were reversed. Our data suggest that preventing loss or dysfunction of MPC may be a new pharmacological target during muscle atrophy.
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- ", 2010 ) . Alterations in SC function , including defective fusion properties , have also been observed in the hind limb suspension model of disuse atrophy ( Mitchell and Pavlath , 2004 ) . Conversely , changes in SC numbers are not a consistent finding in disuse atrophy , reflecting the complexity of events occurring in this context ( Brooks and Myburgh , 2014 ) . "
ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy or wasting accompanies various chronic illnesses and the aging process, thereby reducing muscle function. One of the most important components contributing to effective muscle repair in postnatal organisms, the satellite cells (SCs), have recently become the focus of several studies examining factors participating in the atrophic process. We critically examine here the experimental evidence linking SC function with muscle loss in connection with various diseases as well as aging, and in the subsequent recovery process. Several recent reports have investigated the changes in SCs in terms of their differentiation and proliferative capacity in response to various atrophic stimuli. In this regard, we review the molecular changes within SCs that contribute to their dysfunctional status in atrophy, with the intention of shedding light on novel potential pharmacological targets to counteract the loss of muscle mass.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 08/2015; 7:140. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00140 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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- "In a seminal set of experiments, Mitchell and Pavlath examined the properties of muscle precursor cells (MPCs include both SCs and other stem-like cells between myofibers, fat and in blood vessels ) after 14 days of HS in mice (Mitchell and Pavlath, 2004) and subsequent recovery. HS led to decreased number of MPCs and these MPCs taken from atrophied muscle cells could not proliferate and differentiate in vitro into normal myonucleated myotubes. "
ABSTRACT: Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilization, disuse, and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fiber attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx, and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signaling pathways activated in muscle fibers by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g., amino acids) may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing) is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy.Frontiers in Physiology 03/2014; 5:99. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00099 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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- "Satellite cells are mononucleated muscle precursor cells which play critical roles in the growth, maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle . In mouse models of muscle atrophy (i.e., aging, myopathy, or muscle denervation) the number and activity of satellite cells are reduced suggesting that satellite cell dysfunction contributes to the development of muscle atrophy , . In a mouse model of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we found impaired satellite cell proliferation and differentiation which delayed muscle regeneration and decreased muscle mass . "
ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids production is increased in many pathological conditions that are associated with muscle loss, but their role in causing muscle wasting is not fully understood. We have demonstrated a new mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy: Dexamethasone (Dex) suppresses satellite cell function contributing to the development of muscle atrophy. Specifically, we found that Dex decreases satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism involved Dex-induced upregulation of myostatin and suppression of Akirin1, a promyogenic gene. When myostatin was inhibited in Dex-treated mice, Akirin1 expression increased as did satellite cell activity, muscle regeneration and muscle growth. In addition, silencing myostatin in myoblasts or satellite cells prevented Dex from suppressing Akirin1 expression and cellular proliferation and differentiation. Finally, overexpression of Akirin1 in myoblasts increased their expression of MyoD and myogenin and improved cellular proliferation and differentiation, theses improvements were no longer suppressed by Dex. We conclude that glucocorticoids stimulate myostatin which inhibits Akirin1 expression and the reparative functions of satellite cells. These responses attribute to muscle atrophy. Thus, inhibition of myostatin or increasing Akirin1 expression could lead to therapeutic strategies for improving satellite cell activation and enhancing muscle growth in diseases associated with increased glucocorticoid production.PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e58554. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0058554 · 3.23 Impact Factor