To investigate the pathophysiological role of phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated signaling, changes in the expression of the PLD isozymes PLD1 and PLD2 were investigated in the rat kainic acid (KA) model of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in the expression of PLD1 and PLD2 in the postictal hippocampus. PLD1 immunoreactivity increased preferentially in the CA3 and CA1 regions, where pyramidal neurons are susceptible to temporal lobe epilepsy. Experiments employing double immunofluorescence revealed that the cells expressing PLD1 were GFAP-expressing reactive astrocytes. By contrast, PLD2 immunoreactivity increased strikingly in infrapyramidal, but not in suprapyramidal granule cells of the postictal dentate gyrus, fitting well with results of the PLD activity assay. Considering that PLD belongs to a key signaling pathway, this result suggests that changes in granule cell activity in the dentate gyrus after seizures occurs specifically between the supra- and infrapyramidal blades. In addition, enhanced immunoreactivity of PLD2 was observed in the reactive astrocytes of the CA1, CA3, and hilar subregions, but its temporal pattern is different from that of PLD1. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 and PLD2 exercise their unique pathophysiological functions in the rat hippocampus after KA-induced seizures.
"The mTOR pathway is activated in reactive astrocytes in spinal cord injury (Codeluppi et al., 2009). The levels of ERα in CA1 astrocytes and PLD were increased in KA model (Kim et al., 2004; Sakuma et al., 2009). ERK/MAPK is activated in mechanical trauma-induced astrogliosis and human reactive astrocytes (Mandell and VandenBerg, 1999; Mandell et al., 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of epilepsy have mainly focused on the membrane proteins that control neuronal excitability. Recently, attention has been shifting to intracellular proteins and their interactions, signaling cascades and feedback regulation as they relate to epilepsy. The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway, especially, has been suggested to play an important role in this regard. These pathways are involved in major physiological processes as well as in numerous pathological conditions. Here, involvement of the mTOR pathway in epilepsy will be reviewed by presenting; an overview of the pathway, a brief description of key signaling molecules, a summary of independent reports and possible implications of abnormalities of those molecules in epilepsy, a discussion of the lack of experimental data, and questions raised for the understanding its epileptogenic mechanism.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 04/2011; 43(5):231-74. DOI:10.3858/emm.2011.43.5.032 · 3.45 Impact Factor
"Historically, no distinctions in the functional, structural , and neural innervation of the two blades of the dentate gyrus have been emphasized. However, more recent studies have identified a number of neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and functional differences between the two blades (Hartmann et al. 1992; Tamamaki 1997; Scharfman et al. 2002; Choi et al. 2003; Kim et al. 2004; Witter and Amaral 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: If the hippocampus plays a role in the detection of novel environmental features, then novelty should be associated with altered hippocampal neural activity and perhaps also measures of neuroplasticity. We examined Fos protein expression within subregions of rat hippocampal formation as an indicator of recent increases in neuronal excitation and cellular processes that support neuroplasticity. Environmental novelty, but not environmental complexity, led to a selective increase of Fos induction in the final "output" subregion of the dorsal hippocampal trisynaptic circuit (CA1) and a primary projection site (layer five of the lateral entorhinal cortex, ERC), as well as in the perirhinal cortex. There was no selective effect of novelty on Fos expression within "input" elements of the trisynaptic circuit (ERC layer two, the dentate gyrus or CA3) or other comparison brain regions that may be responsive to overall motor-sensory activity or anxiety levels (primary somatosensory and motor cortex or hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus). Test session ambulatory behavior increased with both novelty and environmental complexity and was not significantly correlated with Fos expression patterns in any of the brain regions examined. In contrast, the extent of manipulated environmental novelty was strongly correlated with Fos expression in CA1. These results support the prospect that a novelty-associated signal is generated within hippocampal neurocircuitry, is relayed to cortical projection sites, and specifically up-regulates neuroplasticity-supporting processes with dorsal hippocampal CA1 and ERC layer five. Whether novelty-dependent Fos induction in perirhinal cortex depends on this hippocampal output or reflects an independent process remains to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten years after the isoforms of mammalian phospholipase D (PLD), PLD1 and 2, were cloned, their roles in the brain remain speculative but several lines of evidence now implicate these enzymes in basic cell functions such as vesicular trafficking as well as in brain development. Many mitogenic factors, including neurotransmitters and growth factors, activate PLD in neurons and astrocytes. Activation of PLD downstream of protein kinase C seems to be a required step for astroglial proliferation. The characteristic disruption of the PLD signaling pathway by ethanol probably contributes to the delay of brain growth in fetal alcohol syndrome. The post-natal increase of PLD activities concurs with synapto- and myelinogenesis in the brain and PLD is apparently involved in neurite formation. In the adult and aging brain, PLD activity has antiapoptotic properties suppressing ceramide formation. Increased PLD activities in acute and chronic neurodegeneration as well as in inflammatory processes are evidently due to astrogliosis and may be associated with protective responses of tissue repair and remodeling. ARF-regulated PLD participates in receptor endocytosis as well as in exocytosis of neurotransmitters where PLD seems to favor vesicle fusion by modifications of the shape and charge of lipid membranes. Finally, PLD activities contribute free choline for the synthesis of acetylcholine in the brain. Novel tools such as RNA interference should help to further elucidate the roles of PLD isoforms in brain physiology and pathology.
Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2005; 94(6):1473-87. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03315.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
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