Analysis of interleukin-13 receptor α2 expression in human pediatric brain tumors

Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 09/2004; 101(5):1036-42. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20470
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Compared with normal brain tissue cells, human malignant glioma cells express higher levels of interleukin-13 receptor (IL-13R). However, whether this receptor is expressed in situ has not been carefully examined. With IL-13R-targeted cytotoxin (IL13-PE38QQR, comprising IL-13 and a mutated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin [PE]) being tested in three Phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of adult human glioma, and with pediatric studies being planned, the authors set out to analyze pediatric brain tumor tissue specimens for the expression of IL-13R.
Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining, the authors examined 58 pediatric brain tumor specimens for expression of the predominant IL-13 binding and internalizing protein (IL-13Ralpha2) chain at the mRNA and protein levels.
Overall, approximately 83% of pediatric brain tumor samples expressed IL-13Ralpha2. One hundred percent (11 of 11) high-grade astrocytoma, 79% (26 of 33) low-grade astrocytoma, 67% (4 of 6) medulloblastoma, and 67% (2 of 3) ependymoma samples were positive for IL-13Ralpha2. Among IL-13Ralpha2-positive samples, 88% (42 of 48 samples) had positive expression in > or = 50% of all tumor fields. The results obtained using both assays were consistent with each other.
The current study established that pediatric brain tumor specimens expressed the IL-13Ralpha2 chain. Because the IL-13Ralpha2 chain is a major binding component of the IL-13R complex, these results suggest that the targeting of IL-13R may represent a useful approach for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors.

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Available from: Satoru Takahashi, Oct 09, 2014
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    • "Abundance of IL13Rα2 overexpression in GBM is a well-documented fact [13, 14, 41, 63–65]. IL13Rα2 is expressed in approximately 58% of adult and 83% of the pediatric brain tumors as well as on glioma-initiating cells [13, 41, 65]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary brain tumor, and despite several refinements in its multimodal management, generally has very poor prognosis. Targeted immunotherapy is an emerging field of research that shows great promise in the treatment of GBM. One of the most extensively studied targets is the interleukin-13 receptor alpha chain variant 2 (IL13Rα2). Its selective expression on GBM, discovered almost two decades ago, has been a target for therapy ever since. Immunotherapeutic strategies have been developed targeting IL13Rα2, including monoclonal antibodies as well as cell-based strategies such as IL13Rα2-pulsed dendritic cells and IL13Rα2-targeted chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells. Advanced therapeutic development has led to the completion of several clinical trials with promising outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances in the IL13Rα2-targeted immunotherapy and evaluate the most promising strategy for targeted GBM immunotherapy.
    BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:952128. DOI:10.1155/2014/952128 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "One attractive immunotherapy target is IL13Rα2, a 42-kDa monomeric high affinity IL-13 receptor distinct from the more ubiquitously expressed IL-13Rα1/IL-4Rα receptor complex [3]. IL13Rα2 is expressed by a high percentage of gliomas, but not at significant levels on normal brain tissue [4]–[7], and in IL13Rα2-expressing tumors has been identified on both stem-like malignant cells and their more differentiated counterparts [8]. Targeting IL13Rα2 is currently the focus of ongoing clinical development for the treatment of brain tumors [8]–[12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL13Rα2) is a cell surface receptor that is over-expressed by a subset of high-grade gliomas, but not expressed at significant levels by normal brain tissue. For both malignant and non-malignant cells, IL13Rα2 surface expression is reported to be induced by various cytokines such as IL-4 or IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Our group has developed a therapeutic platform to target IL13Rα2-positive brain tumors by engineering human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to express the IL13-zetakine chimeric antigen receptor. We therefore sought to investigate the potential of cytokine stimulation to induce IL13Rα2 cell surface expression, and thereby increase susceptibility to IL13Rα2-specific T cell killing. In the course of these experiments, we unexpectedly found that the commercially available putative IL13Rα2-specific monoclonal antibody B-D13 recognizes cytokine-induced VCAM-1 on glioblastoma. We provide evidence that the induced receptor is not IL13Rα2, because its expression does not consistently correlate with IL13Rα2 mRNA levels, it does not bind IL-13, and it is not recognized by IL13-zetakine CTL. Instead we demonstrate by immunoprecipitation experiments and mass spectrometry that the antigen recognized by the B-D13 antibody following cytokine stimulation is VCAM-1, and that VCAM-1, but not IL13Rα2, is induced on glioma cells by TNF alone or in combination with IL-13 or IL-4. Further evaluation of several commercial B-D13 antibodies revealed that B-D13 is bi-specific, recognizing both IL13Rα2 and VCAM-1. This binding is non-overlapping based on soluble receptor competition experiments, and mass spectrometry identifies two distinct heavy and light chain species, providing evidence that the B-D13 reagent is di-clonal. PE-conjugation of the B-D13 antibody appears to disrupt IL13Rα2 recognition, while maintaining VCAM-1 specificity. While this work calls into question previous studies that have used the B-D13 antibody to assess IL13Rα2 expression, it also suggests that TNF may have significant effects on glioma biology by up-regulating VCAM-1.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e95123. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095123 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "IL-13Rα2 is overexpressed on certain types of human tumor tissues [15-22]. We now provide evidence that IL-13Rα2 is highly expressed in a variety of murine tumor cell lines (Additional file 1, Figure S1). "
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    ABSTRACT: DNA vaccines represent an attractive approach for cancer treatment by inducing active T cell and B cell immune responses to tumor antigens. Previous studies have shown that interleukin-13 receptor α2 chain (IL-13Rα2), a tumor-associated antigen is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy as high levels of IL-13Rα2 are expressed on a variety of human tumors. To enhance the effectiveness of DNA vaccine, we used extracellular domain of IL-13Rα2 (ECDα2) as a protein-boost against murine tumor models. We have developed murine models of tumors naturally expressing IL-13Rα2 (MCA304 sarcoma, 4T1 breast carcinoma) and D5 melanoma tumors transfected with human IL-13Rα2 in syngeneic mice and examined the antitumor activity of DNA vaccine expressing IL-13Rα2 gene with or without ECDα2 protein mixed with CpG and IFA adjuvants as a boost vaccine. Mice receiving IL-13Rα2 DNA vaccine boosted with ECDα2 protein were superior in exhibiting inhibition of tumor growth, compared to mice receiving DNA vaccine alone, in both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine settings. In addition, prime-boost vaccination significantly prolonged the survival of mice compared to DNA vaccine alone. Furthermore, ECDα2 booster vaccination increased IFN-γ production and CTL activity against tumor expressing IL-13Rα2. The immunohistochemical analysis showed the infiltration of CD4 and CD8 positive T cells and IFN-γ-induced chemokines (CXCL9 and CXCL10) in regressing tumors of immunized mice. Finally, the prime boost strategy was able to reduce immunosuppressive CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen and tumor of vaccinated mice. These results suggest that immunization with IL-13Rα2 DNA vaccine followed by ECDα2 boost mixed with CpG and IFA adjuvants inhibits tumor growth in T cell dependent manner. Thus our results show an enhancement of efficacy of IL-13Rα2 DNA vaccine with ECDα2 protein boost and offers an exciting approach in the development of new DNA vaccine targeting IL-13Rα2 for cancer immunotherapy.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2010; 8(1):116. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-8-116 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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