The present study compared startle response, skin conductance response (SCR) and subjective variables (valence and arousal ratings, viewing time) assessed in an affective picture paradigm with simultaneously registered event-related brain potentials (ERPs) parameters such as P300 and positive slow waves (PSW). Pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System [Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N., 1999. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report A-4, Center for Research in Psychophysiology. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida] were presented for 8 s, and startle probes were delivered during picture presentation. Startle response was modulated by picture valence, and SCR by picture arousal. ERP positivity was greater for pleasant and unpleasant than for neutral pictures for the P300 amplitude and the positive slow wave (PSW). ERPs showed characteristic differences and a distinct time course for pictures of different valence categories and may deliver useful information not contained in startle response or SCR measures. The simultaneous registration of startle responses and ERPs in the affective picture paradigm seems valuable.
"aux et al . , 1981 ) . A 1 min resting baseline was performed at the beginning of the experiment to facilitate laboratory adaptation . Each participant received written instructions presented on the screen before commencement of each of three tasks , which were always performed in the same order ( in keeping with standardized procedure , e . g . , Amrhein et al . , 2004 ) . Three tasks were conducted . Each task presented the same 260 stimuli ( 550 × 650 pixels ) at a viewing distance of 62 cm and subtended a visual angle of 11 • × 14 • ; this is approximately equivalent to viewing a real face from a normal distance during conversation of 90 – 100 cm ( Hall , 1991 ; Henderson et al . , 2005 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main prediction of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) is that observation of humanlike characters that are difficult to distinguish from the human counterpart will evoke a state of negative affect. Well-established electrophysiological [late positive potential (LPP) and facial electromyography (EMG)] and self-report [Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM)] indices of valence and arousal, i.e., the primary orthogonal dimensions of affective experience, were used to test this prediction by examining affective experience in response to categorically ambiguous compared with unambiguous avatar and human faces (N = 30). LPP and EMG provided direct psychophysiological indices of affective state during passive observation and the SAM provided self-reported indices of affective state during explicit cognitive evaluation of static facial stimuli. The faces were drawn from well-controlled morph continua representing the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). The results provide no support for the notion that category ambiguity along the DHL is specifically associated with enhanced experience of negative affect. On the contrary, the LPP and SAM-based measures of arousal and valence indicated a general increase in negative affective state (i.e., enhanced arousal and negative valence) with greater morph distance from the human end of the DHL. A second sample (N = 30) produced the same finding, using an ad hoc self-rating scale of feelings of familiarity, i.e., an oft-used measure of affective experience along the UVH' familiarity dimension. In conclusion, this multi-method approach using well-validated psychophysiological and self-rating indices of arousal and valence rejects - for passive observation and for explicit affective evaluation of static faces - the main prediction of the UVH.
Frontiers in Psychology 07/2015; 6:981. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00981 · 2.80 Impact Factor
"ferences can be interpreted in terms of different arousal levels , since the LPP is sensitive to the arousal levels of emotional stimuli ( McConnell and Shore , 2011 ; Zhang et al . , 2012a ) . The main effect of electrode was significant , with the LPP amplitude being the largest at the Pz electrode , which is supported by many previous studies ( Amrhein et al . , 2004 ; Schupp et al . , 2004 ; Schutter et al . , 2004 ; Smith et al . , 2013 ) . As for the three - stage model , preliminary analysis of a threat during the early stage of processing can help individuals quickly escape from the threat , and therefore has strong adaptive significance ( Vuilleumier , 2005 ; Corbetta et al . , 2008 ; Caterina"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study recorded event-related potentials using rapid serial visual presentation paradigm to explore the time course of emotionally charged pictures. Participants completed a dual-target task as quickly and accurately as possible, in which they were asked to judge the gender of the person depicted (task 1) and the valence (positive, neutral, or negative) of the given picture (task 2). The results showed that the amplitudes of the P2 component were larger for emotional pictures than they were for neutral pictures, and this finding represents brain processes that distinguish emotional stimuli from non-emotional stimuli. Furthermore, positive, neutral, and negative pictures elicited late positive potentials with different amplitudes, implying that the differences between emotions are recognized. Additionally, the time course for emotional picture processing was consistent with the latter two stages of a three-stage model derived from studies on emotional facial expression processing and emotional adjective processing. The results of the present study indicate that in the three-stage model of emotion processing, the middle and late stages are more universal and stable, and thus occur at similar time points when using different stimuli (faces, words, or scenes).
Frontiers in Psychology 07/2015; 6:954. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00954 · 2.80 Impact Factor
"The LPP is represented by a long-lasting elevated ERP positivity to arousing pictures (Mini et al., 1996; Palomba et al., 1997; Ito et al., 1998a,b; Cuthbert et al., 2000; Schupp et al., 2000; Keil et al., 2002; Amrhein et al., 2004; Olofsson & Polich, 2007). This component indexes the sustained increase in attention toward emotional stimuli. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objects on a collision course with an observer produce a specific pattern of optical expansion on the retina known as looming, which in theory exactly specifies the time-to-collision (TTC) of approaching objects. We recently demonstrated that the affective content of looming stimuli influences perceived TTC, with threatening objects judged as approaching sooner than non-threatening objects. Here, we investigated the neural mechanisms by which perceived threat modulates spatiotemporal perception. Participants judged the TTC of threatening (snakes, spiders) or non-threatening (butterflies, rabbits) stimuli, which expanded in size at a rate indicating one of five TTCs. We analysed visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) and oscillatory neural responses measured with electroencephalography (EEG). The arrival time of threatening stimuli was underestimated compared to non-threatening stimuli, though an interaction suggested that this underestimation was not constant across TTCs. Further, both speed of approach and threat modulated both VEPs and oscillatory responses. Speed of approach modulated the N1 parietal and oscillations in the beta band. Threat modulated several VEP components (P1, N1 frontal, N1 occipital, EPN and LPP) and oscillations in the alpha and high gamma band. The results for the high gamma band suggest an interaction between these two factors. Previous evidence suggests that looming stimuli activate sensorimotor areas, even in absence of an intended action. Our results show that threat disrupts the synchronization over the sensorimotor areas that are likely activated by the presentation of a looming stimulus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal of Neuroscience 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/ejn.12998 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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