To compare the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria and the WHO 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hPG) criteria during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in identifying adults in Jamaica with hyperglycemia. As the OGTT is not commonly used in clinical practice, factors associated with the failure of the FPG criteria to detect persons with impaired 2hPG were investigated.
A random sample of 2 096 adults, 25-74 years old, living in the town of Spanish Town, Jamaica, was evaluated for diabetes. After excluding 215 individuals for reasons such as missing data, the remaining 1 881 persons were composed of 187 who were previously known to have diabetes and 1 694 who were screened for diabetes with both FPG and 2hPG.
The FPG criteria detected 83 cases of diabetes, compared to 72 by the 2hPG criteria. The kappa statistic comparing the two criteria was 0.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.34), indicating fair agreement. There were 261 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 92 cases of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). In those 92 with IFG, an OGTT would identify 34 cases of IGT and 14 cases of diabetes. Of those classified as normoglycemic by FPG criteria, 14% of them had IGT or diabetes by 2hPG criteria. The factors predicting the likelihood of non-detection of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes by FPG were age, body mass index, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, and female sex. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an FPG of 5.1 mmol/L would predict a 2hPG >/= 7.8 mmol/L.
A few individuals classified as normal on FPG will have IGT or diabetes, and an OGTT will be needed to identify them. The yield of IGT detected by screening in Jamaica can be improved by lowering the threshold for IFG or by using clinical information to identify high-risk individuals.
"Hypertension was highest among the elderly, with the old-elderly recording the most among the elderly cohorts. In a study by Sargeant et al., hypertension is more common among women and the elderly in Jamaica. Studies from developed countries have reported prevalence of raised blood pressure among the elderly to vary from 60% to 80%. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing countries such as Jamaica suffer increasingly from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases.
To examine the physical health status and use a model to determine the significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with a chronic non-communicable disease.
The current study extracted a sub-sample of 714 people from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square to investigate non-metric variables, and logistic regression to determine predictors of poor health status.
Approximately one-quarter 25.3%) of the sample reported that they had poor health status. Thirty-three percent of the sample indicated unspecified chronic diseases: 7.8% arthritis, 28.9% hypertension, 17.2% diabetes mellitus and 13.3% asthma. Asthma affected 47.2% of children and 23.2% of young adults. S ignificant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with chronic diseases were: age of respondents, area of residence and inability to work.
Majority of the respondents in the sample had good health, and adults with poor health status were more likely to report having hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus and arthritis, while asthma was the most prevalent among children. Improvement in chronic disease control and health status can be achieved with improved patient education on the importance of compliance, access to more effective medication and development of support groups among chronic disease patients.
North American Journal of Medical Sciences 12/2009; 1(7):356-64. DOI:10.4297/najms.2009.7356
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has proved to be an independent marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether carotid IMT is associated with the plasma glucose concentration in the fasting state, after loading with oral glucose, or with the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in nondiabetic subjects with different levels of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.
A total of 160 nondiabetic subjects (147 from our obesity-overweight clinic and 13 healthy normal subjects) were included in the present study, among them 33 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 13 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 80 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 34 had both IFG and IGT.
Carotid IMT was assessed in the common carotid artery by a high-resolution B-mode ultrasound system. Plasma glucose was measured after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h after a standard 75-g load of glucose. The ISI was calculated from the frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Results The IMT values in the NGT group were lower than those in the IFG, IGT and IFG + IGT groups (P < 0.03). No statistical difference in IMT values was found among the latter three groups. Univariate correlation analyses showed that the IMT was positively associated with age, plasma glucose concentrations 1 and 2 h after glucose loading, and serum concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r=0.39, 0.22, 0.25 and 0.18, respectively, P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age, plasma glucose concentration 2 h after glucose loading, and LDL cholesterol appeared to be significant correlates of the IMT (P<0.0001), whereas the ISI was not.
In nondiabetic subjects with various degrees of glucose intolerance, there was a significant increase in IMT in those with IFG and IGT. Significant determinants of IMT, an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis, include hyperglycaemia 2 h after a glucose load, age and LDL cholesterol, whereas fasting glucose concentration and the ISI were not significantly associated with IMT.
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