Impaired glucose regulation in adults in Jamaica: who should have the oral glucose tolerance test?
ABSTRACT To compare the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria and the WHO 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hPG) criteria during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in identifying adults in Jamaica with hyperglycemia. As the OGTT is not commonly used in clinical practice, factors associated with the failure of the FPG criteria to detect persons with impaired 2hPG were investigated.
A random sample of 2 096 adults, 25-74 years old, living in the town of Spanish Town, Jamaica, was evaluated for diabetes. After excluding 215 individuals for reasons such as missing data, the remaining 1 881 persons were composed of 187 who were previously known to have diabetes and 1 694 who were screened for diabetes with both FPG and 2hPG.
The FPG criteria detected 83 cases of diabetes, compared to 72 by the 2hPG criteria. The kappa statistic comparing the two criteria was 0.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.34), indicating fair agreement. There were 261 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 92 cases of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). In those 92 with IFG, an OGTT would identify 34 cases of IGT and 14 cases of diabetes. Of those classified as normoglycemic by FPG criteria, 14% of them had IGT or diabetes by 2hPG criteria. The factors predicting the likelihood of non-detection of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes by FPG were age, body mass index, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, and female sex. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an FPG of 5.1 mmol/L would predict a 2hPG >/= 7.8 mmol/L.
A few individuals classified as normal on FPG will have IGT or diabetes, and an OGTT will be needed to identify them. The yield of IGT detected by screening in Jamaica can be improved by lowering the threshold for IFG or by using clinical information to identify high-risk individuals.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether isoprostanes, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, may be involved in the development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. Using a nested case-control study, we tracked the changes in isoprostane levels, insulin sensitivity (IS) and beta-cell function (BCF) in Afro-Jamaicans who progressed to IGT and diabetes over 3.9 years. Anthropometry, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, blood pressure and urinary isoprostane concentration were measured at baseline and follow-up. IS and BCF were estimated by the method of homeostasis assessment. Fifty-two individuals who progressed to IGT or diabetes and 44 age, sex and body mass index (BMI) matched controls were studied. Progression to glucose intolerance was significantly related with baseline BCF (p< or =0.01), but not isoprostane levels or IS. Glucose concentrations (fasting and 2 h) on follow-up were significantly correlated to baseline IS, baseline BCF, follow-up IS and follow-up BCF (p-values<0.05). In multiple regression analysis, only follow-up IS and BCF (p-values< or =0.001) independently predicted fasting glucose and 2h glucose levels at follow-up. Isoprostanes were not significantly associated with IS or BCF (p-values>0.1). We concluded that isoprostanes may not be causally involved in the development of glucose intolerance, insulin resistance or deteriorating BCF.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 05/2007; 76(1):149-51. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has proved to be an independent marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether carotid IMT is associated with the plasma glucose concentration in the fasting state, after loading with oral glucose, or with the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in nondiabetic subjects with different levels of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. A total of 160 nondiabetic subjects (147 from our obesity-overweight clinic and 13 healthy normal subjects) were included in the present study, among them 33 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 13 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 80 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 34 had both IFG and IGT. Carotid IMT was assessed in the common carotid artery by a high-resolution B-mode ultrasound system. Plasma glucose was measured after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h after a standard 75-g load of glucose. The ISI was calculated from the frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Results The IMT values in the NGT group were lower than those in the IFG, IGT and IFG + IGT groups (P < 0.03). No statistical difference in IMT values was found among the latter three groups. Univariate correlation analyses showed that the IMT was positively associated with age, plasma glucose concentrations 1 and 2 h after glucose loading, and serum concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r=0.39, 0.22, 0.25 and 0.18, respectively, P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age, plasma glucose concentration 2 h after glucose loading, and LDL cholesterol appeared to be significant correlates of the IMT (P<0.0001), whereas the ISI was not. In nondiabetic subjects with various degrees of glucose intolerance, there was a significant increase in IMT in those with IFG and IGT. Significant determinants of IMT, an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis, include hyperglycaemia 2 h after a glucose load, age and LDL cholesterol, whereas fasting glucose concentration and the ISI were not significantly associated with IMT.Clinical Endocrinology 02/2006; 64(2):153-7. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Many developing countries, including countries of the English-speaking Caribbean, are undergoing an epidemiologic transition and experiencing rapid increases in the prevalence of diabetes. Objectives: This article examines the epidemiology of diabetes, the types of diabetes, the etiologic factors and complications of diabetes, and the public health burden associated with diabetes in the Caribbean. Methods: An extensive PubMed literature search was conducted for the period 1951 to 2008 using the search terms diabetes, glucose intolerance, Caribbean, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad, Bahamas, Guyana, and the names of all the other English-speaking Caribbean countries. Results: Four hundred articles were identified in the literature search. Of these, 131 original articles were selected for inclusion in this review. Prevalence rates for diabetes ranged from 11% to 18% of the population in several countries. The prevalence of atypical diabetes (ketosis-prone diabetes) may be declining because of increases in the proportions of the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ecologic studies show an east-to-west gradient from West Africa to the Caribbean for obesity and obesity-related diseases. The steep increase in the prevalence of obesity and the increase in sedentarism in Caribbean societies are the main risk factors driving the diabetes epidemic. The roles of early-life origins (specifically, in infants with low birth weight and rapid catch-up growth and/or macrosomic infants) and genetic factors await further clarification in this population. Diabetic foot, nephropathy, and stroke are common complications. Conclusions: In the English-speaking Caribbean, diabetes is a major public health burden that threatens the gross domestic product of these developing island nations. Macroeconomic initiatives are needed to start the combat against diabetes.Insulin 01/2009; 4(2):12.