Impaired glucose regulation in adults in Jamaica: who should have the oral glucose tolerance test?
ABSTRACT To compare the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria and the WHO 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hPG) criteria during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in identifying adults in Jamaica with hyperglycemia. As the OGTT is not commonly used in clinical practice, factors associated with the failure of the FPG criteria to detect persons with impaired 2hPG were investigated.
A random sample of 2 096 adults, 25-74 years old, living in the town of Spanish Town, Jamaica, was evaluated for diabetes. After excluding 215 individuals for reasons such as missing data, the remaining 1 881 persons were composed of 187 who were previously known to have diabetes and 1 694 who were screened for diabetes with both FPG and 2hPG.
The FPG criteria detected 83 cases of diabetes, compared to 72 by the 2hPG criteria. The kappa statistic comparing the two criteria was 0.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.34), indicating fair agreement. There were 261 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 92 cases of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). In those 92 with IFG, an OGTT would identify 34 cases of IGT and 14 cases of diabetes. Of those classified as normoglycemic by FPG criteria, 14% of them had IGT or diabetes by 2hPG criteria. The factors predicting the likelihood of non-detection of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes by FPG were age, body mass index, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, and female sex. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an FPG of 5.1 mmol/L would predict a 2hPG >/= 7.8 mmol/L.
A few individuals classified as normal on FPG will have IGT or diabetes, and an OGTT will be needed to identify them. The yield of IGT detected by screening in Jamaica can be improved by lowering the threshold for IFG or by using clinical information to identify high-risk individuals.
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ABSTRACT: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has proved to be an independent marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether carotid IMT is associated with the plasma glucose concentration in the fasting state, after loading with oral glucose, or with the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in nondiabetic subjects with different levels of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. A total of 160 nondiabetic subjects (147 from our obesity-overweight clinic and 13 healthy normal subjects) were included in the present study, among them 33 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 13 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 80 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 34 had both IFG and IGT. Carotid IMT was assessed in the common carotid artery by a high-resolution B-mode ultrasound system. Plasma glucose was measured after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h after a standard 75-g load of glucose. The ISI was calculated from the frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Results The IMT values in the NGT group were lower than those in the IFG, IGT and IFG + IGT groups (P < 0.03). No statistical difference in IMT values was found among the latter three groups. Univariate correlation analyses showed that the IMT was positively associated with age, plasma glucose concentrations 1 and 2 h after glucose loading, and serum concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r=0.39, 0.22, 0.25 and 0.18, respectively, P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age, plasma glucose concentration 2 h after glucose loading, and LDL cholesterol appeared to be significant correlates of the IMT (P<0.0001), whereas the ISI was not. In nondiabetic subjects with various degrees of glucose intolerance, there was a significant increase in IMT in those with IFG and IGT. Significant determinants of IMT, an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis, include hyperglycaemia 2 h after a glucose load, age and LDL cholesterol, whereas fasting glucose concentration and the ISI were not significantly associated with IMT.Clinical Endocrinology 02/2006; 64(2):153-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02440.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mortality of patients with hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at a Jamaican tertiary care hospital. In a retrospective study of 1560 admissions for diabetes during the period 1998-2002, 980 dockets were reviewed and 164 individuals met the ADA diagnostic criteria for DKA or HHS. Patients with HHS were older than DKA patients (64.5 years [95% CI: 60.7-68.4] versus 35.9 years [95% CI: 30.2-41.6]), but were not more likely to be non-compliant with medications, infected, or male. Overall, 24% had a mixed DKA/HHS syndrome. Most DKA patients had type 2 diabetes (62%). Only 2% of HHS and 6% of DKA/HHS patients had type 1 diabetes. Syndrome specific mortality was: DKA 6.7%, HHS 20.3%, and DKA/HHS 25% (p for trend=0.013). Mortality increased significantly with age, especially in patients > or =50 years. Significant univariate predictors of mortality were altered mental status on admission, co-existing medical disease, increasing age, older age at onset of diabetes, acute stressors, and DKA/HHS. In multivariate models, only altered mental status was significant (OR=3.59; 95% CI: 1.24-10.41). Hence, hyperglycaemic crises in a Jamaican tertiary care hospital are associated with significant mortality especially in patients who are older or with altered mental status.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 08/2006; 73(2):184-90. DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2006.01.004 · 2.54 Impact Factor