Topical β‐carotene is converted to retinyl esters in human skin ex vivo and mouse skin in vivo
ABSTRACT Human epidermis contains endogenous retinoids (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (mostly beta-carotene). Previous studies have shown that the enzymes involved in retinoid metabolism are present in human epidermis. There is still a controversy about the presence in the skin of the enzymes able to convert beta-carotene into vitamin A (retinol), although a recent study demonstrated the conversion of beta-carotene into retinol in human cultured epidermal cells. In this study, we addressed the question of the possible bioconversion of topical beta-carotene into vitamin A or derivatives by human and mouse skin. Surgically excised human abdominal skin was mounted on Franz perfusion chambers to assess the cutaneous penetration of topical beta-carotene as well as its metabolism, after a 24-h incubation period, whereas hairless mice received topical beta-carotene 24 h before assaying epidermal beta-carotene and retinoid concentrations. Epidermal retinoid and beta-carotene concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Topical beta-carotene penetrated well into human and mouse epidermis and induced a 10-fold (human) and a threefold (mouse) increase of epidermal retinyl esters, which demonstrates that topical beta-carotene is converted into retinyl esters by human and mouse epidermis and thus appears as a precursor of epidermal vitamin A.
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- "Also, more specialized acyltransferases exist in human keratinocytes to assure the storage of the important skin retinol through esterification into retinyl esters. This step is catalyzed by two enzymes, acyl-CoA: retinol acyltransferase and lecithin: retinol acyltransferase ; their expression is modulated by the differentiation state of the keratinocytes (Antille et al. 2004; Törmä and Vahlquist 1990). "
ABSTRACT: The exposure of the skin to medical drugs, skin care products, cosmetics, and other chemicals renders information on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) in the skin highly interesting. Since the use of freshly excised human skin for experimental investigations meets with ethical and practical limitations, information on XME in models comes in the focus including non-human mammalian species and in vitro skin models. This review attempts to summarize the information available in the open scientific literature on XME in the skin of human, rat, mouse, guinea pig, and pig as well as human primary skin cells, human cell lines, and reconstructed human skin models. The most salient outcome is that much more research on cutaneous XME is needed for solid metabolism-dependent efficacy and safety predictions, and the cutaneous metabolism comparisons have to be viewed with caution. Keeping this fully in mind at least with respect to some cutaneous XME, some models may tentatively be considered to approximate reasonable closeness to human skin. For dermal absorption and for skin irritation among many contributing XME, esterase activity is of special importance, which in pig skin, some human cell lines, and reconstructed skin models appears reasonably close to human skin. With respect to genotoxicity and sensitization, activating XME are not yet judgeable, but reactive metabolite-reducing XME in primary human keratinocytes and several reconstructed human skin models appear reasonably close to human skin. For a more detailed delineation and discussion of the severe limitations see the "Overview and Conclusions" section in the end of this review.Archive für Toxikologie 11/2014; 88(12). DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1382-8 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian skin has long been considered to be poor in drug metabolism. However, many reports clearly show that most drug metabolizing enzymes also occur in the mammalian skin albeit at relatively low specific activities. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on drug metabolizing enzymes in the skin of human, rat, and pig, the latter, because it is often taken as a model for human skin on grounds of anatomical similarities. However only little is known about drug metabolizing enzymes in pig skin. Interestingly, some cytochromes P450 (CYP) have been observed in the rat skin which are not expressed in the rat liver, such as CYP 2B12 and CYP2D4. As far as investigated most drug metabolizing enzymes occur in the suprabasal (i.e. differentiating) layers of the epidermis, but the rat CYP1A1 rather in the basal layer and human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase rather in the stratum corneum. The pattern of drug metabolizing enzymes and their localization will impact not only the beneficial as well as detrimental properties of drugs for the skin but also dictate whether a drug reaches the blood flow unchanged or as activated or inactivated metabolite(s).Drug Metabolism Reviews 02/2007; 39(4):659-98. DOI:10.1080/03602530701690366 · 6.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source. However, it is widely distributed in nature, with reasonable amounts found in olive oil, palm oil, wheat-germ oil, amaranth oil, and rice bran oil. Squalene, the main component of skin surface polyunsaturated lipids, shows some advantages for the skin as an emollient and antioxidant, and for hydration and its antitumor activities. It is also used as a material in topically applied vehicles such as lipid emulsions and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). Substances related to squalene, including beta-carotene, coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) and vitamins A, E, and K, are also included in this review article to introduce their benefits to skin physiology. We summarize investigations performed in previous reports from both in vitro and in vivo models.Molecules 02/2009; 14(1):540-54. DOI:10.3390/molecules14010540 · 2.42 Impact Factor