Central and peripheral changes in catecholamine biosynthesis and turnover in rats after a short period of ozone exposure.
ABSTRACT We investigated in rat the effects of ozone exposure (0.7 ppm) for 5 h on the catecholamine biosynthesis and turnover in sympathetic efferents and various brain areas. For this purpose, the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, was assessed in superior cervical ganglia and in two major noradrenergic cell groups, A2 and A6 (locus coeruleus). Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was estimated in vivo by measuring the accumulation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine after pharmacological blockade of L-aromatic acid decarboxylases by NSD-1015 (100 mg/kg i.p.). The catecholamine turnover rate was measured after inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT, 250 mg/kg, i.p., 2.5 h) in peripheral sympathetic target organ (heart and lungs) as well as in some brain catecholamine terminal areas (cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and striatum). Ozone caused differential effects according to the structure. Catecholamine biosynthesis was stimulated in superior cervical ganglia (+44%, P < 0.05) and caudal A2 subset (+126%, P < 0.01), whereas catecholamine turnover was increased in heart (+183%, P < 0.01) and cortex (+22%, P < 0.05). On the other hand, catecholamine turnover was inhibited in lungs (-53%, P < 0.05) and striatum (-24%, P < 0.05). A brief exposure to ozone, at a concentration chosen to mimic pollution level encountered in urban areas, can modulate catecholamine biosynthesis and utilization rate in the sympathetic and central neurones.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Air pollution is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Changes in the autonomic nervous system may contribute to cardiac arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality. This study investigated the relations between air pollutant concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone (O(3)), nitric dioxide (NO(2)), and resting heart rate (RHR) in a population based study. A sample of 863 middle aged men and women, living in Toulouse (MONICA centre) area, was randomly recruited. A cross sectional survey on cardiovascular risk factors was carried. RHR was measured twice in a sitting position after a five minute rest. Multivariate analyses with quintiles of RHR were performed using polytomous logistic regression. Models were adjusted for temperature, season, relative humidity, sex, physical activity, blood pressure, C reactive protein, and cardiovascular drugs. For NO(2), the OR (odds ratio) (95% CI) associated with an increase of 5 microg/m(3) in the current day of medical examination was 1.14 (1.03 to 1.25) in quintile Q5 of RHR compared with Q1, p for trend = 0.003. For SO(2), OR was 1.16 (0.94 to 1.44) in Q5 compared with Q1, p for trend = 0.05, and for O(3), OR was 0.96 (0.91 to 1.01) in Q5 compared with Q1, p for trend = 0.11. No significant association was seen when the daily mean concentration of NO(2), SO(2), and O(3) was considered during the previous day as well as when day lag 2 or 3 was considered. The cumulative concentration (three consecutive days) of O(3) is negatively associated with RHR (p for trend = 0.02). Changes in pulse rate could reflect cardiac rhythm changes and may be part of the pathophysiological link between pollution and cardiovascular mortality.Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 09/2005; 59(8):685-93. · 3.19 Impact Factor