Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas show distinctly different microarray expression profiles and can be distinguished by a minimum of five genes
ABSTRACT We have previously conducted independent microarray expression analyses of the two most common types of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, namely papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). In this study, we sought to combine our data sets to shed light on the similarities and differences between these tumor types.
Microarray data from six PTCs, nine FTCs, and 13 normal thyroid samples were normalized to remove interlaboratory variability and then analyzed by unsupervised clustering, t test, and by comparison of absolute and change calls. Expression changes in four genes not previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis were verified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on these same samples, together with eight additional FTC tumors.
PTCs showed two distinct groups of genes that were either over- or underexpressed compared with normal thyroid, whereas the predominant changes in FTCs were of decreased expression. Five genes could collectively distinguish the two tumor types. PTCs showed overexpression of CITED1, claudin-10 (CLDN10), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) but showed no change in expression of caveolin-1 (CAV1) or -2 (CAV2); conversely, FTCs did not express CLDN10 and had decreased expression of IGFBP6 and/or CAV1 and CAV2.
PTC and FTC show distinctive microarray expression profiles, suggesting that either they have different molecular origins or they diverge distinctly from a common origin. Furthermore, if verified in a larger series of tumors, these genes could, in combination with known tumor-specific chromosome translocations, form the basis of a valuable diagnostic tool.
- SourceAvailable from: Silvia Regina Rogatto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The article aims to introduce nurses to how genetics-genomics is currently integrated into cancer care from prevention to treatment and influencing oncology nursing practice. Organizing Construct: An overview of genetics-genomics is described as it relates to cancer etiology, hereditary cancer syndromes, epigenetics factors, and management of care considerations. Methods: Peer-reviewed literature and expert professional guidelines were reviewed to address concepts of genetics-genomics in cancer care. Findings: Cancer is now known to be heterogeneous at the molecular level, with genetic and genomic factors underlying the etiology of all cancers. Understanding how these factors contribute to the development and treatment of both sporadic and hereditary cancers is important in cancer risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management and surveillance. Conclusions: Rapidly developing advances in genetics-genomics are changing all aspects of cancer care, with implications for nursing practice. Clinical Relevance: Nurses can educate cancer patients and their families about genetic-genomic advances and advocate for use of evidence-based genetic-genomic practice guidelines to reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes in cancer management.Journal of Nursing Scholarship 01/2013; 45(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2012.01465.x · 1.77 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Differentiation is central to development, while dedifferentiation is central to cancer progression. Hence, a quantitative assessment of differentiation would be most useful. We propose an unbiased method to derive organ-specific differentiation indices from gene expression data and demonstrate its usefulness in thyroid cancer diagnosis. We derived a list of thyroid-specific genes by selecting automatically those genes that are expressed at higher level in the thyroid than in any other organ in a normal tissue's genome-wide gene expression compendium. The thyroid index of a tissue was defined as the median expression of these thyroid-specific genes in that tissue. As expected, the thyroid index was inversely correlated with meta-PCNA, a proliferation metagene, across a wide range of thyroid tumors. By contrast, the two indices were positively correlated in a time course of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) activation of primary thyrocytes. Thus, the thyroid index captures biological information not integrated by proliferation rates. The differential diagnostic of follicular thyroid adenomas and follicular thyroid carcinoma is a notorious challenge for pathologists. The thyroid index discriminated them as accurately as did machine-learning classifiers trained on the genome-wide cancer data. Hence, although it was established exclusively from normal tissue data, the thyroid index integrates the relevant diagnostic information contained in tumoral transcriptomes. Similar results were obtained for the classification of the follicular vs classical variants of papillary thyroid cancers, that is, tumors dedifferentiating along a different route. The automated procedures demonstrated in the thyroid are applicable to other organs.Oncogene 01/2012; 31(41):4490-8. DOI:10.1038/onc.2011.626 · 8.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Periostin is a mesenchyme-specific gene product, which acts as an adhesion molecule during bone formation and supports osteoblastic cell line attachment and spreading. However, periostin expression is activated in a large variety of epithelial human tumors and correlates with their aggressiveness. Knowledge of expression of periostin in thyroid tumors is still scanty. The aim of the present work was to investigate periostin expression in differentiated neoplasms of the thyroid and to correlate it with several clinical and molecular features of these tumors. Periostin expression was evaluated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in normal thyroid tissues, papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), and follicular adenomas (FAs). Periostin mRNA levels were also evaluated in several thyroid tumor cell lines. PTCs show mean periostin mRNA levels significantly higher than corresponding normal tissues. In five PTCs, periostin mRNA values were at least 30-fold higher than corresponding normal tissues. Conversely, mean periostin mRNA levels of FTCs and FAs were similar to those of normal tissues. Consistent with mRNA studies, periostin was detectable by immunohistochemistry in cancerous epithelial cells only in several cases of PTCs but not in normal tissue, FTCs, and FAs. In PTCs, periostin mRNA levels positively correlate with extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastasis, and higher grade staging. A negative correlation between periostin and expression of some markers of the thyroid-differentiated phenotype (thyroglobulin, thyrotropin receptor) was also present in the PTCs. These results indicate that an increase in periostin gene expression is present in several PTCs, in which it appears as a marker of aggressiveness. Experiments in thyroid tumor cell lines indicate that high levels of periostin mRNA are due, at least in part, to the increase in periostin promoter activity.Journal of Endocrinology 06/2008; 197(2):401-8. DOI:10.1677/JOE-07-0618 · 3.59 Impact Factor