Leptin is a pleiotropic molecule involved in energy homeostasis, hematopoiesis, inflammation, and immunity. Hypoleptinemia characterizing starvation has been strictly related to increased susceptibility to infection secondary to malnutrition. Nevertheless, ESRD is characterized by high susceptibility to bacterial infection despite hyperleptinemia. Defects in neutrophils play a crucial role in the infectious morbidity, and several uremic toxins that are capable of depressing neutrophil functions have been identified. Only a few and contrasting reports about leptin and neutrophils are available. This study provides evidence that leptin inhibits neutrophil migration in response to classical chemoattractants. Moreover, serum from patients with ESRD inhibits migration of normal neutrophils in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine with a strict correlation between serum leptin levels and serum ability to suppress neutrophil locomotion. Finally, the serum inhibitory activity can be effectively prevented by immune depletion of leptin. The results also show, however, that leptin by itself is endowed with chemotactic activity toward neutrophils. The two activities-inhibition of the cell response to chemokines and stimulation of neutrophil migration-could be detected at similar concentrations. On the contrary, neutrophils exposed to leptin did not display detectable [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization, oxidant production, or beta(2)-integrin upregulation. The results demonstrate that leptin is a pure chemoattractant devoid of secretagogue properties that are capable of inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis to classical neutrophilic chemoattractants. Taking into account the crucial role of neutrophils in host defense, the leptin-mediated ability of ERSD serum to inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis appears as a potential mechanism that contributes to the establishment of infections in ERSD.
"Ghrelin has been shown to inhibit the leptin-induced cytokine expression in a dose-dependent manner, while leptin has upregulated ghrelin receptor-secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) expression on human T lymphocytes . Leptin is known as a pure chemo-attractant and appears to have proangiogenic activity [40,41] whereas ghrelin inhibits angiogenesis [42,43]. These findings suggest the existence of a reciprocal regulatory network by which ghrelin and leptin control immune cell activation, inflammation and angiogenesis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The current markers of disease activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA) are insufficient for proper assessment. We investigated circulating levels of unacylated and acylated ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin and their relationships with disease activity in patients with TA.
This study included 31 patients with TA and 32 sex-, age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed in TA patients using various tools, including Kerr's criteria, disease extent index-Takayasu, physician's global assessment, radiological parameters, and laboratory markers. Plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin, and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels were found to be significantly lower in TA patients than that in healthy controls. Patients with active disease had lower unacylated ghrelin levels than those with inactive disease and had lower acylated ghrelin levels than healthy controls. Ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with various parameters of disease activity. The leptin/ghrelin ratio was significantly higher in TA patients than controls. It was positively correlated with disease activity. There was a positive correlation between unacylated and acylated ghrelin and a negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin. There was no statistical difference in adiponectin levels between TA patients and controls. The radiological activity markers were positively correlated with other parameters of disease activity.
This study suggests that plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels may be useful in monitoring disease activity and planning treatment strategies for patients with TA. The serum leptin level and leptin/ghrelin ratio may also be used to help assess the disease activity.
"Leptin signaling in the central nervous system was recently shown to be an important cause of anorexia . Leptin also significantly interferes with neutrophil chemotaxis  and produces vascular damage through proatherogenic and proinflammatory effects . Adiponectin could mediate insulin-sensitizing [85, 86], antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory actions . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) development. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome and is associated with increased risk for CKD in nondiabetic patients. IR is common in patients with mild-to-moderate stage CKD, even when the glomerular filtration rate is within the normal range. IR, along with oxidative stress and inflammation, also promotes kidney disease. In patients with end stage renal disease, IR is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and is linked to protein energy wasting and malnutrition. Systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, elevated serum adipokines and fetuin-A, metabolic acidosis, vitamin D deficiency, depressed serum erythropoietin, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and suppressors of cytokine signaling all cause IR by suppressing insulin receptor-PI3K-Akt pathways in CKD. In addition to adequate renal replacement therapy and correction of uremia-associated factors, thiazolidinedione, ghrelin, protein restriction, and keto-acid supplementation are therapeutic options. Weight control, reduced daily prednisolone dosage, and the use of cyclosporin decrease the risk of developing new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation. Improved understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying IR in CKD may lead to more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce uremia-associated morbidity and mortality.
BioMed Research International 08/2012; 2012:691369. DOI:10.1155/2012/691369 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"Moreover, leptin is secreted exclusively by adipocytes and is capable of linking metabolism and immune homeostasis (Matarese and La Cava, 2004). It has been reported to be also a chemoattractant for neutrophils (Ottonello et al., 2004) as well as for monocytes and macrophages (Gruen et al., 2007). In the present study, the larger adipocyte size of s.c. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate whether phagocytic immune cells infiltrate into bovine adipose tissue (AT) and to study the effects of lactation and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on the invasion of phagocytic immune cells into different s.c. and visceral (v.c.) fat depots of primiparous dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). German Holstein-Friesian cows (HF; n = 25) with a mean body condition score of 3.0 were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From 1 DIM until sample collection, CLA cows were fed 100 g of CLA supplement/d (about 6% of c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers each), whereas the CON cows received 100 g/d of a fatty acid mixture instead of CLA. The CON cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered at 1, 42, and 105 DIM, and the CLA cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered at 42 and 105 DIM. Adipose tissues (n = 150) from 3s.c. (tailhead, withers, and sternum) and 3 v.c. (omental, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal) depots were sampled. In addition, s.c. tailhead biopsies were collected by repeated surgical biopsies (3 samplings within 7 wk; n = 36) from 12 nonpregnant, nonlactating Simmental heifers (SM; mean body condition score = 5.0) fed diets of varying energy density to compare the changes in phagocytic immune cell infiltration with early lactating cows. Immunohistochemical analyses of different fat depots revealed a low incidence of phagocytic immune cell infiltration in early lactating cows. The portion of infiltrating macrophages (CD68+) in a few positive AT samples of HF cows was slightly lower in s.c. than v.c. fat and was positively correlated with both empty body weight and adipocyte size. However, no differences with regard to DIM and CLA supplementation were observed in HF cows. Increased accumulation of phagocytic immune cells, albeit at low cell numbers, in nonpregnant, over-conditioned SM heifers might be related to larger adipocytes secreting higher amounts of chemoattractant adipokines compared with the early lactating cows. In conclusion, the extent of fatness in HF cows may not be high enough to stimulate significant infiltration of phagocytic cells in AT and, therefore, these immune cells might have no major role in the immunologic and metabolic adaptations of AT during early lactation.
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