Prevalence of Salmonella spp on conventional and organic dairy farms.
ABSTRACT To describe the occurrence of fecal shedding, persistence of shedding over time, and serogroup classification of Salmonella spp on a large number of dairy farms of various sizes.
22,417 fecal samples from cattle and 4,570 samples from the farm environment on 110 organic and conventional dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and NewYork.
5 visits were made to each farm at 2-month intervals from August 2000 to October 2001. Fecal samples from healthy cows, calves, and other targeted cattle groups and samples from bulk tank milk, milk line filters, water, feed sources, and pen floors were collected at each visit. Bacterial culture was performed at 1 laboratory.
Salmonella spp were isolated from 4.8% of fecal samples and 5.9% of environmental samples; 92.7% of farms had at least 1 Salmonella-positive sample. The 75th percentile for median within-herd prevalence of Salmonella spp in cattle for 5 sampling visits to a given farm was 2.0% and for maximum within-herd prevalence of Salmonella spp was 13.6%. Farms with a median within-herd prevalence of Salmonella spp of > or = 2.0% accounted for 76.3% of Salmonella-positive samples. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella spp between conventional and organic farms. Seasonal differences in Salmonella shedding were observed. More farms had at least 1 serogroup B isolate than any other serogroup, whereas serogroup E1 was the most common among all Salmonella-positive samples. More than 1 serogroup was isolated on 76.4% of Salmonella-positive farms.
Salmonella spp were isolated from > 90% of dairy farms; however, 25% of farms accounted for > 75% of Salmonella-positive samples. This information is critical for the direction of intervention strategies to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella spp on dairy farms.
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ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time.Journal of dairy science. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) on dairy cattle farms in Minnesota, USA. After adjustment for farm size, risk factors included: use of total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 5.1], no use of monensin for weaned calves (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 9.3), and no use of decoquinate for preweaned calves (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.6). Fecal shedding of STB was more common in small herds (< 100 cows, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) than in large herds (≥ 100 cows). Herd management factors related to cattle feeding practices were associated with fecal shedding of STB.The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 07/2013; 54(7):693-7. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Salmonellosis is an insidious and potentially epidemic problem in pre-weaned dairy calves. Managing this disease, or any other diarrheal disease, is a financial burden to producers. Calf mortalities and medicinal treatments are overt costs of salmonellosis, while hidden costs include hampered weight gains and persistent intestinal colonization of the pathogen. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) incorporated into both the milk replacer and the starter grain. In a blinded study, 2-8 day-old calves were fed SCFP (n=20 calves) or an SCFP-free Control (n=20 calves) for two weeks before and three weeks after experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Following the challenge, calves were monitored for clinical signs and parameters associated with salmonellosis. Calves were then euthanized and examined for rumen development and intestinal Salmonella colonization. When compared to calves that received milk replacer and feed lacking SCFP, calves fed SCFP had fewer bouts of diarrhea and fever. Rumens from these calves were more developed, as measured by the length of papillae, which is consistent with the enhanced weight gain observed in this treatment group. Additionally, Salmonella intestinal colonization was reduced in SCFP-fed calves and Salmonella fecal shedding disappeared at an earlier stage in these calves. This study revealed that the combination of two proprietary S. cerevisiae fermentation products provide marked benefit for preventing the negative effects of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves, while also boosting productivity. The mechanism of action needs to be clarified, but it may be related to the observed decrease in colonization by the pathogen and increase in rumen development.Veterinary microbiology. 06/2014;