Human dendritic cells are less potent at killing Candida albicans than both monocytes and macrophages.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DC) function as professional phagocytes to kill Candida albicans and subsequently present it to the adaptive immune system. Monocytes, macrophages and DC were generated from five individual donors and their Candida-killing capacity and cytokine release were assessed. Compared to monocytes and macrophages, DC from healthy volunteers were significantly less effective in C. albicans--stimulated cytokine release, killing of C. albicans blastoconidia and damaging of C. albicans hyphae. In conclusion, while important as antigen-presenting cells and initiators of the adaptive immune system, DC are poor in both intracellular killing and damaging of C. albicans hyphae. Effective handling of large numbers of C. albicans is the prime task of the innate immune system consisting of large numbers of neutrophils and monocytes.
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ABSTRACT: Beyond its well-documented role in reproduction, embryogenesis and maintenance of body tissues, vitamin A has attracted considerable attention due to its immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. In infectious diseases, vitamin A has been shown to have a host-protective effect in infections of bacterial, viral or protozoan origin. Nevertheless, its impact in fungal infections remains unknown. Meanwhile, the frequency of invasive mycoses keeps on growing, with Candida albicans being the major opportunistic fungal pathogen and associated with high mortality. In the present work, we explored the impact of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), the most active metabolite of vitamin A, on the innate immune response against C. albicans in human monocytes. Our results show a strong immunomodulatory role for atRA, leading to a significant down-regulation of the fungi-induced expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL6 and IL12. Moreover, atRA significantly suppressed the expression of Dectin-1, a major fungal pattern recognition receptor, as well as the Dectin-1-dependent cytokine production. Both RAR-dependent and RAR-independent mechanisms seem to play a role in the atRA-mediated immunomodulation. Our findings open a new direction to elucidate the role of vitamin A on the immune function during fungal infections.Medical Microbiology and Immunology 08/2014; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Certain Candida spp. (e.g. C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata) are not only well-adapted fungal commensals of humans, but are also able to cause superficial mucosal infections or even systemic disease. Professional phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells) constitute the first line of defence against Candida spp. Here, we review the interactions of phagocytes with pathogenic Candida spp., focusing on macrophages and neutrophils. We discuss the mechanisms involved in recognition, uptake and killing of these fungi. We go on to analyse the cellular responses of these yeasts towards phagocyte-imposed stresses, including metabolic flexibility, robust oxidative stress response and ability to cope with nitrosative stress. Finally, we address strategies that allow these opportunistic pathogens to thrive within the host, evading and escaping from the phagocyte attack.Medical Microbiology and Immunology 01/2013; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with complex and constant remodeling of the immune function, resulting in an increasing susceptibility to infection and others diseases. The infections caused by Gram-negative microorganisms, present in nursing homes and hospitals, constitute one of the most common infections in the elderly, and are mainly combated by innate immune cells. Although the functions of innate immunity seem more preserved during aging than of adaptive immune mechanisms, two systems operate in an integrated way in the body, so that injury in one part of the immune system inevitably affects the other as they are part of a defensive network. The aim of this study was to investigate the production in vitro production of proinflammatory (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta, CXCL-8 and MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-beta and IL-10) cytokines by monocytes, stimulated or not (basal) with lipopolysaccharide, from healthy young and elderly subjects. By means of PBMCs, we also studied if cytokine profile is altered in these different patient groups, in the presence of lymphocytes, under the same experimental conditions. RESULTS: The monocytes from elderly presented higher basal production of TNF-alpha, MCP-1 and lower of TGF-beta than young monocytes. PBMC showed similar cytokines production, irrespective age or stimulation presence. In the presence of lymphocytes, the spontaneous production of IL-10 was higher and of TGF-beta was lower than monocytes, regardless of age. After LPS-stimulation, the presence of lymphocytes resulted in increased IL-6, IL-1beta, MCP-1 and IL-10 and decreased CXCL-8 and TGF-beta in comparison to pure culture of monocytes from young patients. With age, the same differences were observed, except for CXCL-8 and TGF-beta which production was the same between monocytes and PBMC stimulated with LPS. CONCLUSION: These findings reinforce the systemic state of inflamm-aging frequently reported in elderly and considered a factor of susceptibility to numerous diseases. Still, the cytokine production from just monocytes of the elderly showed alterations, while in the lymphocyte presence not, suggesting an immunomodulator role of lymphocytes on monocytes. In addition, the differences between the productions patterns by LPS-stimulated PBMC between young and elderly volunteers can be related with an imbalance in response against Gram-negative bacteria in throughout life.Immunity & Ageing 06/2013; 10(1):22.