Transplantation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells restores endothelial function of denuded rabbit carotid arteries.
ABSTRACT Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in repair of injured vascular endothelium and neovascularization. The present study was designed to determine the effect of EPCs transplantation on the regeneration of endothelium and recovery of endothelial function in denuded carotid arteries.
Isolated mononuclear cells from rabbit peripheral blood were cultured in endothelial growth medium for 7 days, yielding EPCs. A rabbit model of common carotid artery denudation by passage of a deflated balloon catheter was used to evaluate the effects of EPCs on endothelial regeneration and vasomotor function. Immediately after denudation, autologous EPCs (10(5) cells in 200 microL saline) or 200 microL saline alone (control) were administered into the lumen of injured artery.
Four weeks after transplantation, fluorescence-labeled colonies of EPCs were found in the vessel wall. Local transplantation of EPCs as compared with saline administration accelerated endothelialization and significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxation when assessed 4 weeks after denudation (n=4 to 5, P<0.05). Transplantation of EPCs did not affect vasomotor function of arterial smooth muscle cells. Protein array analysis of conditioned media obtained from cultured EPCs demonstrated the ability of these cells to produce and release a number of proangiogenic cytokines.
We conclude that local delivery of cultured circulating EPCs into the lumen of denuded carotid arteries accelerates endothelialization and improves endothelial function. Paracrine effects of EPCs may contribute to regenerative properties of EPCs.
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ABSTRACT: Repairing articular cartilage is clinically challenging. We investigated a simple, effective and clinically feasible cell-based therapeutic approach using a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold seeded with autologous endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to repair a full-thickness osteochondral defect in rabbits using a one-step surgery. EPC obtained by purifying a small amount of peripheral blood from rabbits were seeded into a highly porous, biocompatible PLGA scaffold, namely, EPC-PLGA, and implanted into the osteochondral defect in the medial femoral condyle. Twenty two rabbits were randomized into one of three groups: the empty defect group (ED), the PLGA-only group or the EPC-PLGA group. The defect sites were evaluated 4 and 12 weeks after implantation. At the end of testing, only the EPC-PLGA group showed the development of new cartilage tissue with a smooth, transparent and integrated articular surface. Moreover, histological analysis showed obvious differences in cartilage regeneration. At week 4, the EPC-PLGA group showed considerably higher TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 expression, a greater amount of synthesized glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and a higher degree of osteochondral angiogenesis in repaired tissues. At week 12, the EPC-PLGA group showed enhanced hyaline cartilage regeneration with a normal columnar chondrocyte arrangement, higher SOX9 expression, and greater GAG and collagen type II content. Moreover, the EPC-PLGA group showed organized osteochondral integration, the formation of vessel-rich tubercular bone and significantly higher bone volume per tissue volume and trabecular thickness. The present EPC-PLGA cell delivery system generates a suitable in situ microenvironment for osteochondral regeneration without the supplement of exogenous growth factors.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 08/2013; · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular occlusion can result in fatal myocardial infarction, stroke or loss of limb in peripheral arterial disease. Interventional balloon angioplasty is a common first line procedure for vascular disease treatment, but long term success is limited by restenosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Cellular therapies have been proposed to mitigate these issues; however efficacy is low, in part due to poor cell retention. We show that magnetic targeting of mesenchymal stem cells gives rise to a 6-fold increase in cell retention following balloon angioplasty in a rabbit model using a clinically applicable permanent magnet. Cells labelled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit no negative effects on cell viability, differentiation or secretion patterns. The increase in stem cell retention leads to a reduction in restenosis three weeks after cell delivery.Biomaterials 03/2013; 34(8):1987-1994. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditionally, the development of diabetic complications has been attributed to the biochemical pathways driving hyperglycaemic cell damage, while reparatory mechanisms have been long overlooked. A more comprehensive view of the balance between damage and repair suggests that an impaired regenerative capacity of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells strongly contributes to defective re-endothelisation and neoangiogenesis in diabetes. Although recent technological advances have redefined the biology and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), interest in BM-derived vasculotropic cells in the setting of diabetes and its complications remains high. Several circulating cell types of haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic origin are affected by diabetes and are potentially involved in the pathobiology of chronic complications. In addition to classical EPCs, these include circulating (pro-)angiogenic cells, polarised monocytes/macrophages (M1 and M2), myeloid calcifying cells and smooth muscle progenitor cells, having disparate roles in vascular biology. In parallel with the study of elusive progenitor cell phenotypes, it has been recognised that diabetes induces a profound remodelling of the BM stem cell niche. The alteration of circulating (progenitor) cells in the BM is now believed to be the link among distant end-organ complications. The field is rapidly evolving and interest is shifting from specific cell populations to the complex network of interactions that orchestrate trafficking of circulating vasculotropic cells.Diabetologia 10/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor