Middle cerebral artery thrombolysis through the contralateral internal carotid artery--case report.
ABSTRACT A 63-year-old male presented with sudden onset of right hemiplegia and global aphasia. On admission he was stuporous. Computed tomography (CT) revealed no abnormalities except for right intraventricular meningioma found incidentally. Emergency angiography confirmed complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) and left M1 trunk whereas the left ICA bifurcation remained patent. The ipsilateral ICA was permanently occluded with two detachable balloons to prevent thrombus migration into the distal ICA and middle cerebral artery (MCA), followed by thrombolysis of the clot in the ipsilateral M1 through the contralateral ICA with urokinase (total dose 420,000 U) under systemic heparinization. Partial recanalization of the ipsilateral MCA was accomplished. The time interval from onset to recanalization was about 3 hours. Postoperative CT showed no hemorrhagic transformation. Slight right paresis and mild motor aphasia persisted 2 months later and he was transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Thrombolysis of the MCA embolism can be performed through the contralateral ICA in the presence of ipsilateral ICA occlusion.
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ABSTRACT: This report covers a series of four patients with acute cervical carotid occlusion and profound neurological deficits who were treated with intracranial intraarterial thrombolysis. All of the patients presented with arm plegia with variable leg involvement and two of them had global aphasia. Angiography identified occlusion of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) in each case and intracranial thromboembolus of the supraclinoid ICA and/or its branches. Catheter navigation through the occluded ICA segment was straightforward in three patients and somewhat difficult in one patient with an 80% ICA stenosis. Intraarterial urokinase infusion along with mechanical clot disruption was performed at the clot site in the middle cerebral artery, supraclinoid ICA, and/or anterior cerebral artery. All patients had recanalization of the treated artery after urokinase infusion. Antegrade flow through the ICA was reestablished in two patients, and good collateral filling across the anterior communicating artery was established in the other two. All patients had major pretreatment deficits (mean National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stroke Score 24 +/-4) with significant improvement noted at 3 months posttreatment (NIH Stroke Score 7 +/-6;p=0.03). Two patients made a dramatic early recovery. Postprocedure computerized tomography revealed no abnormality in one and asymptomatic basal ganglia high density from repeated local contrast injections in two patients. On the basis of their findings in this small study group the authors suggest that catheter navigation through a presumably occluded carotid artery is feasible and possibly effective in thrombolytic therapy of intracranial thrombolysis. Further study with clinical trials is necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of this technique.Journal of Neurosurgery 04/1996; 84(3):387-92. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator can be beneficial to some patients when given within 3 hours of stroke onset, but many patients present later after stroke onset and alternative treatments are needed. To determine the clinical efficacy and safety of intra-arterial (IA) recombinant prourokinase (r-proUK) in patients with acute stroke of less than 6 hours' duration caused by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. PROACT II (Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism II), a randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label clinical trial with blinded follow-up conducted between February 1996 and August 1998. Fifty-four centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 180 patients with acute ischemic stroke of less than 6 hours' duration caused by angiographically proven occlusion of the MCA and without hemorrhage or major early infarction signs on computed tomographic scan. Patients were randomized to receive 9 mg of IA r-proUK plus heparin (n = 121) or heparin only (n = 59). The primary outcome, analyzed by intention-to-treat, was based on the proportion of patients with slight or no neurological disability at 90 days as defined by a modified Rankin score of 2 or less. Secondary outcomes included MCA recanalization, the frequency of intracranial hemorrhage with neurological deterioration, and mortality. For the primary analysis, 40% of r-proUK patients and 25% of control patients had a modified Rankin score of 2 or less (P = .04). Mortality was 25% for the r-proUK group and 27% for the control group. The recanalization rate was 66% for the r-proUK group and 18% for the control group (P<.001). Intracranial hemorrhage with neurological deterioration within 24 hours occurred in 10% of r-proUK patients and 2% of control patients (P = .06). Despite an increased frequency of early symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, treatment with IA r-proUK within 6 hours of the onset of acute ischemic stroke caused by MCA occlusion significantly improved clinical outcome at 90 days.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2000; 282(21):2003-11. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of noncontrast CT in the selection of patients to receive thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and to predict radiological and clinical outcomes. One hundred eighty patients with stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion were randomized 2:1 within 6 hours of onset to receive intra-arterial recombinant prourokinase plus intravenous heparin or intravenous heparin only. Four hundred fifty-four CT examinations were digitized to calculate early infarct changes, infarct volumes, and hemorrhagic changes among the 162 patients treated as randomized (108 recombinant prourokinase-treated patients and 54 control patients). CT changes were correlated with baseline stroke severity, angiographic clot location, collateral vessels, and outcome at 90 days. Baseline CT scans, 120 (75%) of 159, showed early infarct-related abnormalities. The baseline CT abnormality volume was not correlated with the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (r=-0.11) but was correlated weakly with the outcome (r=0.17, P<0.05). Compared with patients with M2 occlusions, patients with M1 MCA occlusions had significantly higher baseline NIHSS scores (P<0.05), more basal ganglia involvement on CT, and larger hypodensity volumes on follow-up CTs. Compared with patients with partial or no collateral supply, patients with full collateral supply had lower baseline NIHSS scores, significantly smaller baseline CT infarct volumes, and less cortical involvement (P<0.05). Noncontrast CT is not correlated with baseline stroke severity and does not predict outcome in patients with stroke due to MCA occlusion. However, baseline CT changes, clinical presentation, and the evolution of CT changes are influenced by clot location and the presence of a collateral supply.Stroke 07/2002; 33(6):1557-65. · 6.16 Impact Factor