Developmental regulation of claudin localization by fetal alveolar epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Tight junction proteins in the claudin family regulate epithelial barrier function. We examined claudin expression by human fetal lung (HFL) alveolar epithelial cells cultured in medium containing dexamethasone, 8-bromo-cAMP, and isobutylmethylxanthanine (DCI), which promotes alveolar epithelial cell differentiation to a type II phenotype. At the protein level, HFL cells expressed claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and claudin-18, where levels of expression varied with culture conditions. DCI-treated differentiated HFL cells cultured on permeable supports formed tight transepithelial barriers, with transepithelial resistance (TER) >1,700 ohm/cm(2). In contrast, HFL cells cultured in control medium without DCI did not form tight barriers (TER <250 ohm/cm(2)). Consistent with this difference in barrier function, claudins expressed by HFL cells cultured in DCI medium were tightly localized to the plasma membrane; however, claudins expressed by HFL cells cultured in control medium accumulated in an intracellular compartment and showed discontinuities in claudin plasma membrane localization. In contrast to claudins, localization of other tight junction proteins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, and occludin, was not sensitive to HFL cell phenotype. Intracellular claudins expressed by undifferentiated HFL cells were localized to a compartment containing early endosome antigen-1, and treatment of HFL cells with the endocytosis inhibitor monodansylcadaverine increased barrier function. This suggests that during differentiation to a type II cell phenotype, fetal alveolar epithelial cells use differential claudin expression and localization to the plasma membrane to help regulate tight junction permeability.
- SourceAvailable from: Venkatadri KollaAmerican Thoracic Society 2009 International Conference, May 15-20, 2009 • San Diego, California; 04/2009
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial barrier function is maintained by tight junction proteins that control paracellular fluid flux. Among these proteins is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), an Ig fold transmembrane protein. To assess JAM-A function in the lung, we depleted JAM-A in primary alveolar epithelial cells using shRNA. In cultured cells, loss of JAM-A caused an approximately 30% decrease in transepithelial resistance, decreased expression of the tight junction scaffold protein zonula occludens 1, and disrupted junctional localization of the structural transmembrane protein claudin-18. Consistent with findings in other organs, loss of JAM-A decreased β1 integrin expression and impaired filamentous actin formation. Using a model of mild systemic endoxotemia induced by i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide, we report that JAM-A(-/-) mice showed increased susceptibility to pulmonary edema. On injury, the enhanced susceptibility of JAM-A(-/-) mice to edema correlated with increased, transient disruption of claudin-18, zonula occludens 1, and zonula occludens 2 localization to lung tight junctions in situ along with a delay in up-regulation of claudin-4. In contrast, wild-type mice showed no change in lung tight junction morphologic features in response to mild systemic endotoxemia. These findings support a key role of JAM-A in promoting tight junction homeostasis and lung barrier function by coordinating interactions among claudins, the tight junction scaffold, and the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal Of Pathology 11/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Claudin-2 is expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissue and cell lines, although it is absent in normal lung tissue. However, the role of claudin-2 in cell proliferation and the regulatory mechanism of intracellular distribution remain undefined. Proliferation of human adenocarcinoma A549 cells was decreased by claudin-2 knockdown together with a decrease in the percentage of S phase cells. This knockdown decreased the expression levels of ZONAB and cell cycle regulators. Claudin-2 was distributed in the nucleus in human adenocarcinoma tissues and proliferating A549 cells. The nuclear distribution of ZONAB and percentage of S phase cells were higher in cells exogenously expressing claudin-2 with a nuclear localization signal than in cells expressing claudin-2 with a nuclear export signal. Nuclear claudin-2 formed a complex with ZO-1, ZONAB, and cyclin D1. Nuclear distribution of S208A mutant, a dephosphorylated form of claudin-2, was higher than that of wild type. We suggest that nuclear distribution of claudin-2 is up-regulated by dephosphorylation and claudin-2 serves to retain ZONAB and cyclin D1 in the nucleus, resulting in the enhancement of cell proliferation in lung adenocarcinoma cells.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 01/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor