Developmental regulation of claudin localization by fetal alveolar epithelial cells
ABSTRACT Tight junction proteins in the claudin family regulate epithelial barrier function. We examined claudin expression by human fetal lung (HFL) alveolar epithelial cells cultured in medium containing dexamethasone, 8-bromo-cAMP, and isobutylmethylxanthanine (DCI), which promotes alveolar epithelial cell differentiation to a type II phenotype. At the protein level, HFL cells expressed claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and claudin-18, where levels of expression varied with culture conditions. DCI-treated differentiated HFL cells cultured on permeable supports formed tight transepithelial barriers, with transepithelial resistance (TER) >1,700 ohm/cm(2). In contrast, HFL cells cultured in control medium without DCI did not form tight barriers (TER <250 ohm/cm(2)). Consistent with this difference in barrier function, claudins expressed by HFL cells cultured in DCI medium were tightly localized to the plasma membrane; however, claudins expressed by HFL cells cultured in control medium accumulated in an intracellular compartment and showed discontinuities in claudin plasma membrane localization. In contrast to claudins, localization of other tight junction proteins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, and occludin, was not sensitive to HFL cell phenotype. Intracellular claudins expressed by undifferentiated HFL cells were localized to a compartment containing early endosome antigen-1, and treatment of HFL cells with the endocytosis inhibitor monodansylcadaverine increased barrier function. This suggests that during differentiation to a type II cell phenotype, fetal alveolar epithelial cells use differential claudin expression and localization to the plasma membrane to help regulate tight junction permeability.
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- "Claudin-2 mRNA is not expressed in normal lung epithelia  , but its expression is increased in human lung adenocarcinoma . We also found that claudin-2 expression in lung adenocarcinoma and A549 cells is higher than that in normal tissue and other lung carcinomas (Fig. 1). "
ABSTRACT: In human adenocarcinoma, claudin-2 expression is higher than that in normal lung tissue, but the regulatory mechanism of its expression has not been clarified. In human adenocarcinoma A549 cells, claudin-2 level time-dependently increased under the control conditions. In contrast, claudin-1 expression remained constant for 24h. The concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in medium time-dependently increased, which was inhibited by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor II, an inhibitor of MMP-1, 3, 7, and 9. MMP inhibitor II decreased claudin-2 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) levels, which were recovered by EGF. Both claudin-2 and p-ERK1/2 levels were decreased by EGF neutralizing antibody, EGF receptor (EGFR) siRNA, AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR, U0126, an inhibitor of MEK, and the exogenous expression of dominant negative-MEK. These results suggest that EGF is secreted from A549 cells by MMP and increases claudin-2 expression mediated via the activation of an EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway. The inhibition of the signaling pathway decreased phosphorylated c-Fos and nuclear c-Fos levels. The introduction of c-Fos siRNA decreased claudin-2 level without affecting claudin-1. The promoter activity of human claudin-2 was decreased by AG1478 and U0126. Furthermore, the activity was decreased by the deletion or mutation of the AP-1 binding site of claudin-2 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and avidin-biotin conjugated DNA assays showed that c-Fos binds to the AP-1 binding site. We suggest that a secreted EGF up-regulates the transcriptional activity of claudin-2 mediated by the activation of an EGFR/MEK/ERK/c-Fos pathway in A549 cells.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2012; 1823(6):1110-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2012.04.005 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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- "Bronchial epithelium also expresses cingulin, ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3  . Occludin, ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, cingulin and JAM-1 are expressed in alveolar cells   . "
ABSTRACT: Tight junctions are structures located in the apicobasal region of the cell membranes. They regulate paracellular solute and electrical permeability of cell layers. Additionally, they influence cellular polarity, form a paracellular fence to molecules and pathogens and divide the cell membranes to apical and lateral compartments. Tight junctions adhere to the corresponding ones of neighbouring cells and by this way also mediate attachment of the cells to one other. Molecules forming the membranous part of tight junctions include occludin, claudins, tricellulin and junctional adhesion molecules. These molecules are attached to scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3 through which signals are mediated to the cell interior. Expression of tight junction proteins, such as claudins, may be up- or downregulated in cancer and they are involved in EMT thus influencing tumor spread. Like in tumors of other sites, lung tumors show changes in the expression in tight junction proteins. In this review the significance of tight junctions and its proteins in lung cancer is discussed with a focus on the proteins forming the membranous part of these structures.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2012; 5(2):126-36. · 1.89 Impact Factor
- "Rat alveolar epithelial cells expressed claudin 3, 4 and 7 mRNA but claudin 1 or claudin 5 mRNA were not found even though claudin 5 was found in western blot analysis in alveolar cells . Rat type 2 alveolar cells express more claudin 3 and type 1 cells more claudin 7 [16,26]. Thus there are inconsistencies regarding claudin expression also in alveolar cells detected by immunohistochemistry or mRNA analysis which may be species specific, partly due to the method used or may reflect extended half lives of proteins compared to RNA. "
Article: Claudins in lung diseases[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tight junctions are the most apically localized part of the epithelial junctional complex. They regulate the permeability and polarity of cell layers and create compartments in cell membranes. Claudins are structural molecules of tight junctions. There are 27 claudins known, and expression of different claudins is responsible for changes in the electrolyte and solute permeability in cells layers. Studies have shown that claudins and tight junctions also protect multicellular organisms from infections and that some infectious agents may use claudins as targets to invade and weaken the host's defense. In neoplastic diseases, claudin expression may be up- or downregulated. Since their expression is associated with specific tumor types or with specific locations of tumors to a certain degree, they can, in a restricted sense, also be used as tumor markers. However, the regulation of claudin expression is complex involving growth factors and integrins, protein kinases, proto-oncogens and transcription factors. In this review, the significance of claudins is discussed in lung disease and development.Respiratory research 05/2011; 12(1):70. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-12-70 · 3.09 Impact Factor