With many epidemiologic studies made to establish the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in Western countries, no such data have been reported in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of SDB and OSAS, and their related factors in Korean adults aged 40-69 years. Among the total of 5,020 participants at the baseline examination of the Korean Health and Genome Study, a random sample of 457 men and women was studied with employment of overnight full polysomnography to determine the prevalence of SDB and OSAS. The prevalence of SDB (apnea-hypopnea index > or = 5) was 27% and 16% in men and women, respectively. When OSAS was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index > or = 5 plus excessive daytime sleepiness, its prevalence was 4.5% in men and 3.2% in women. Logistic regression analyses showed that sex, body mass index, and hypertension were closely associated with the risk of SDB. Our findings show that SDB is a common problem in the Korean adult population. Understanding and treatment of SDB may be essential in terms of intervention to reduce the risk of related medical problems.
"Heavy snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and mild/moderate/severe OSA lie between these two extremes . Prevalence of SDB in women increases with age and body mass index (BMI), and has been reported to be between 2% and 9%  . The pathogenesis of SDB involves a number of interrelated mechanisms such as anatomically small upper airway and abnormal respiratory control mechanism. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disorder among women in the reproductive age group. These women are prone to develop sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and metabolic disorders. SDB is also associated with metabolic dysfunctions. We hypothesized that SDB is an independent risk factor contributing to metabolic dysfunctions in women with PCOS.
Prospective cross-sectional study in which 50 women with PCOS and not on any treatment were selected. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 - PCOS with SDB and Group 2 - PCOS without SDB.
Thirty-three (66%) women with PCOS had SDB. Women in Group 1 had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P = 0.002); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.044); fasting blood sugar (P = 0.006), triglyceride levels (P = 0.014) and mean Ferriman-Gallwey score (P = 0.028). The HDL was significantly lower in group 1 (P = 0.006). In group 1, 42.4% of women had metabolic syndrome (P < 0.001). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was significantly higher in Group 1 (P = 0.04). Respiratory distress index significantly correlated positively with waist circumference (r = 0.551, P < 0.001), SBP (r = 0.455, P = 0.001), DBP (r = 0.387, P = 0.006), FBS (r = 0.524, P = 0.000), homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.512, P = 0.000), triglycerides (r = 0.384, P = 0.006), free testosterone (r = 0.390, P = 0.005), and negatively with HDL (r = -0.555, P < 0.001).
Women with PCOS and SDB had significantly increased metabolic abnormalities as well as more severe hyperandrogenism. Women with PCOS who have metabolic abnormalities or severe hyperandrogenism should undergo an overnight PSG.
Sleep Medicine 09/2014; 15(12). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.06.023 · 3.15 Impact Factor
"A total of 5015 cohort members were followed biennially from 2001 with scheduled on-site follow-up visits. Information on the study design and the selection criteria for the ongoing prospective study is available in previous reports  . This cross-sectional study included cohort members who participated in the fifth cycle of the 2-year follow-up study from May 26, 2009, to December 7, 2010. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Obesity and low muscle mass may coexist as age-related changes in body composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of visceral adiposity and skeletal muscle mass on left ventricular (LV) structure and function in the general population.
A total of 1941 participants without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Visceral fat area (VFA) was assessed by computed tomography. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and was used as a percentage of body weight (ASM/Wt). LV structure and function were assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography.
Across VFA tertiles, ASM increased, but ASM/Wt decreased (all P<0.001). In multivariate models adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, LV mass index and LV diastolic parameters, such as left atrial dimension, TDI Ea velocity, and E/Ea ratio, were significantly impaired as VFA increased. On the other hand, an increase in ASM/Wt was associated with a decrease in LV mass index and improvement of LV diastolic parameters. With regard to LV mass index and TDI Ea velocity, VFA and ASM/Wt showed synergistic effects (all P interaction<0.05). When both VFA and ASM/Wt were simultaneously included in the same model, both remained independent predictors of LV mass index and TDI Ea velocity.
More visceral fat and less muscle mass are independently and synergistically associated with an increase in LV mass index and impairment of LV diastolic parameters. Further research is needed to explore the complex mechanisms underlying these associations.
International Journal of Cardiology 08/2014; 176(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.08.108 · 4.04 Impact Factor
"In general, Asian subjects have a smaller bony structure so that soft tissue pressure would increase more easily when fat accumulates around the UA, and a higher BMI has been shown to be a major predictive and risk factor for SDB in Chinese   and Korean subjects . Ip and coworkers reported that women with SDB had lower AHIs compared to men with similar BMIs  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is considered to be a major contributing factor to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, there is limited evidence with regard to gender predominance. We analyzed 2345 patients (339 females) in correlation with body mass index (BMI) and OSA severity. Male AHIs were significantly higher than female AHIs in each BMI group. As the BMI increased, the AHI increased in both males and females, and this trend was more obvious in males. For BMI-matched male and female patients with OSA, the severity of OSA was higher in males. As BMI increased, the severity of OSA increased more obviously in males. Our findings suggest that increased body fat contributes to the pathogenesis of OSA more in males than in females and that obesity plays a more significant role in contributing to OSA in male patients.
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