Placental oxidative stress: From miscarriage to preeclampsia

Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation (Impact Factor: 2.26). 10/2004; 11(6):342-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsgi.2004.03.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To review the role of oxidative stress in two common placental-related disorders of pregnancy, miscarriage and preeclampsia.
Review of published literature.
Miscarriage and preeclampsia manifest at contrasting stages of pregnancy, yet both have their roots in deficient trophoblast invasion during early gestation. Early after implantation, endovascular trophoblast cells migrate down the lumens of spiral arteries, and are associated with their physiological conversion into flaccid conduits. Initially these cells occlude the arteries, limiting maternal blood flow into the placenta. The embryo therefore develops in a low oxygen environment, protecting differentiating cells from damaging free radicals. Once embryogenesis is complete, the maternal intervillous circulation becomes fully established, and intraplacental oxygen concentration rises threefold. Onset of the circulation is normally a progressive periphery-center phenomenon, and high levels of oxidative stress in the periphery may induce formation of the chorion laeve. If trophoblast invasion is severely impaired, plugging of the spiral arteries is incomplete, and onset of the maternal intervillous circulation is premature and widespread throughout the placenta. Syncytiotrophoblastic oxidative damage is extensive, and likely a major contributory factor to miscarriage. Between these two extremes will be found differing degrees of trophoblast invasion compatible with ongoing pregnancy but resulting in deficient conversion of the spiral arteries and an ischemia-reperfusion-type phenomenon. Placental perfusion will be impaired to a greater or lesser extent, generating commensurate placental oxidative stress that is a major contributory factor to preeclampsia.
Miscarriage, missed miscarriage, and early- and late-onset preeclampsia represent a spectrum of disorders secondary to deficient trophoblast invasion.

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    ABSTRACT: Background The endocannabinoid system plays a key role in female reproduction, including implantation, decidualization and placentation. In the present study, we aimed to analyze cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2 and fatty acid amid hydrolase (FAAH) expressions and localization in normal and preeclamptic placenta, in order to determine whether placental endocannabinoid expression pattern differs between normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.Methods Eighteen preeclamptic patients and 18 normotensive, healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies were involved in our case¿control study. We determined CB1, CB2 and FAAH expressions by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in placental samples collected directly after Cesarean section.ResultsCB1 expression semi-quantified by Western blotting was significantly higher in preeclamptic placenta, and these findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CB1 immunoreactivity was markedly stronger in syncytiotrophoblasts, the mesenchymal core, decidua, villous capillary endothelial and smooth muscle cells, as well as in the amnion in preeclamptic samples compared to normal pregnancies. However, we did not find significant differences between preeclamptic and normal placenta in terms of CB2 and FAAH expressions and immunoreactivity.Conclusions We observed markedly higher expression of CB1 protein in preeclamptic placental tissue. Increased CB1 expression might cause abnormal decidualization and impair trophoblast invasion, thus being involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Nevertheless, we did not find significant differences between preeclamptic and normal placental tissue regarding CB2 and FAAH expressions. While the detailed pathogenesis of preeclampsia is still unclear, the endocannabinoid system could play a role in the development of the disease.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):395. DOI:10.1186/s12884-014-0395-x · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    01/2010; 17(3). DOI:10.2478/v10140-010-0011-y
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    ABSTRACT: Do any proteomic biomarkers previously identified for pre-eclampsia (PE) overlap with those identified in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
    Human Reproduction 10/2014; DOI:10.1093/humrep/deu268 · 4.59 Impact Factor


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Dec 15, 2014