Homozygous PINK1 C-terminus mutation causing early-onset parkinsonism.
ABSTRACT Two homozygous mutations in the PINK1 gene, encoding a mitochondrial putative protein kinase, recently have been identified in families with PARK6-linked, autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism (AREP). Here, we describe a novel homozygous mutation (1573_1574 insTTAG) identified in an AREP patient, which causes a frameshift and truncation at the C-terminus of the PINK1 protein, outside the kinase catalytic domain. The clinical phenotype includes early-onset (28 years) parkinsonism, foot dystonia at onset, good levodopa response, slow progression, early levodopa-induced dyskinesias, and sleep benefit, thereby resembling closely parkin-related disease. These findings confirm that recessive mutations in PINK1 cause early-onset parkinsonism and expand the associated clinical phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease.Journal of Neural Transmission 10/2010; 118(1):27-45. DOI:10.1007/s00702-010-0476-6 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene mutations have been associated with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease. To date, no neuropathological reports have been published from patients with Parkinson's disease with both phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene copies mutated. We analysed the coding region of phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene in a large Spanish family with six members with parkinsonism. The phenotype was characterized by an early-onset (mean: 31.6, standard deviation: 9.6 years, range: 14-45 years), slowly progressive levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, initial gait impairment and psychiatric symptoms. We identified two segregating pathogenic phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 mutations that were either in homozygous or heterozygous compound state in all affected family members. We found an exon 7 deletion (g.16089_16383del293; c.1252_1488del) and a novel+1U1-dependent 5' splice-site mutation in exon 7 (g.16378G>A; c.1488+1G>A). Leukocyte-derived messenger RNA analysis showed that both mutations caused exon 7 skipping and c.1488+1G>A also lead to an in-frame transcript with a 33 base-pair deletion (p.L485_R497del) resulting from activation of a 5' cryptic exon 7 splice site. Single photon emission computed tomography quantification of striatal dopamine transporter binding (123I-Ioflupane) revealed a posterior-anterior gradient similar to that of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, but there was no correlation between striatal reduced uptake and disease duration. Post-mortem neuropathological examination of an early-onset Parkinson's disease carrier of two heterozygous compound phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 mutations showed neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta, Lewy bodies and aberrant neurites in the reticular nuclei of the brainstem, substantia nigra pars compacta and Meynert nucleus, but the locus ceruleus and the amygdala were spared. This is the first neuropathological report of the brain from an early-onset phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1-linked parkinsonism showing that mutated phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 protein induces Lewy body pathology. Unbalanced preservation of the locus ceruleus may well play a role in the slow evolution of motor symptoms and, probably, in the psychiatric symptoms often encountered in Parkinson's disease associated with phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 mutation.Brain 03/2010; 133(Pt 4):1128-42. DOI:10.1093/brain/awq051 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of mitochondrial structure and function has emerged as a central factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related parkinsonian disorders (PD). Toxic and environmental injuries and risk factors perturb mitochondrial complex I function, and gene products linked to familial PD often affect mitochondrial biology. Autosomal recessive mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause an L-DOPA responsive parkinsonian syndrome, stimulating extensive interest in the normal neuroprotective and mitoprotective functions of PINK1. Recent data from mammalian and invertebrate model systems converge upon interactions between PINK1 and parkin, as well as DJ-1, α-synuclein and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). While all studies to date support a neuroprotective role for wild type, but not mutant PINK1, there is less agreement on subcellular compartmentalization of PINK1 kinase function and whether PINK1 promotes mitochondrial fission or fusion. These controversies are reviewed in the context of the dynamic mitochondrial lifecycle, in which mitochondrial structure and function are continuously modulated not only by the fission–fusion machinery, but also by regulation of biogenesis, axonal/dendritic transport and autophagy. A working model is proposed, in which PINK1 loss-of-function results in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), cristae/respiratory dysfunction and destabilization of calcium homeostasis, which trigger compensatory fission, autophagy and biosynthetic repair pathways that dramatically alter mitochondrial structure. Concurrent strategies to identify pathways that mediate normal PINK1 function and to identify factors that facilitate appropriate compensatory responses to its loss are both needed to halt the aging-related penetrance and incidence of familial and sporadic PD.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2010; 1802(1-1802):20-28. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2009.06.012 · 4.66 Impact Factor