"The immunomodulatory effects of other psychotropic drugs such as clonidine and bupropion have become increasingly recognized. In addition to the link between ADHD and obesity, an association between ADHD and allergy has also emerged  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both increasing in prevalence. Childhood exposure to television has shown linkage to both ADHD and obesity with the former ascribed to dysfunctional cognitive hyperstimulation and the latter to altered patterns of diet and exercise. Empirical evidence has contradicted prior presumptions that the hyperactivity of ADHD would decrease the risk of obesity. Instead, obesity and ADHD demonstrate significant comorbidity. We propose that obesity and ADHD represent different manifestations of the same underlying dysfunction, a phenomenon we term environmental oversampling syndrome. Oversupply of information in the form of nutritional content and sensory content may independently predispose to both obesity and ADHD. Moreover, the pathogenic mechanisms of these conditions may overlap such that nutritional excess contributes to ADHD and cognitive hyperstimulation contributes to obesity. The overlapping effects of medications provide further evidence towards the existence of shared etiologic pathways. Metabolism and cognition may represent parallel systems of intelligence, and oversampling of content may constitute the source of parallel dysfunctions. The emerging association between psychiatric and metabolic disorders suggests a fundamental biologic link between these two systems. In addition, the immune system may represent yet another form of intelligence. The designation of syndrome X subsumes seemingly unrelated metabolic and inflammatory entities. Environmental oversampling syndrome may represent an even more inclusive concept that encompasses various metabolic, inflammatory, and behavioral conditions. Apparently disparate conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, syndrome X, obesity, ADHD, depression, psychosis, sleep apnea, inflammation, autism, and schizophrenia may operate through common pathways, and treatments used exclusively for one of these conditions may prove beneficial for the others.
Medical Hypotheses 02/2006; 66(2):263-9. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2005.02.042 · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Practicum Project is a supervised service-learning experience that integrates curriculum with hands-on experience in a public health setting. All 2nd year students are expected to work collaboratively in assessing the extent, causes and public health responses to a selected public health problem confronting citizens of Connecticut. The focal topic for the 2005 Project was Control of Childhood Obesity in Connecticut.During this past spring, 25 students of our program, working alongside and in partnership with more than 130 community-based stakeholders across Connecticut, completed 2,083 hours of service-learning in pursuit of answers to 3 questions:Can the present and future burden of childhood obesity be estimated for Connecticut?What is the current capacity of Connecticut's health and social service system to address the crisis we confront today?Can new policy and regulatory strategies be put forth to reduce the severity and scope of the problem?This occasion and the accompanying report mark the completion of their project and acknowledges the considerable contributions that many have made to the success of this educational experience. Through those combined efforts, students gained experience and skill addressing one of the most significant public health issues of our time; also, they gained insight into the breadth and capacity of our public health system and established invaluable relationships with public health practitioners, agencies and institutions around the state. Their report documents a rich campus-community partnership to advance public health goals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) requires a multimodal approach. Although shared-care protocols are suggested, uptake by general practice has been tentative. Behavioural management, both on its own and in combination with pharmacotherapy, reduces core symptoms and associated behaviours, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Links with education and social support are also important for helping children and their families. Psychostimulants have shown to be effective in the treatment of ADHD, however, their short duration of action highlights potential limitations. Other drugs used in the management of ADHD and comorbid disorders include antidepressants, clonidine and its analogues, newer atypical neuroleptics, and atomoxetine, a novel, non-stimulant therapy that has potential to fulfil some unmet treatment needs. Further research is needed in preschool children, girls, those with epilepsy, young adults, and in those with associated sleep disturbance. Selected rating scales and careful history taking, allied to close links with schools, are vital for the initial and ongoing assessment of ADHD and its comorbidities.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 03/2005; 90 Suppl 1(suppl_1):i19-25. DOI:10.1136/adc.2004.059352 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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