Social cognitive theory of traumatic recovery: The role of perceived self-efficacy

University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO 8093-7150, USA.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 11/2004; 42(10):1129-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2003.08.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present article integrates findings from diverse studies on the generalized role of perceived coping self-efficacy in recovery from different types of traumatic experiences. They include natural disasters, technological catastrophes, terrorist attacks, military combat, and sexual and criminal assaults. The various studies apply multiple controls for diverse sets of potential contributors to posttraumatic recovery. In these different multivariate analyses, perceived coping self-efficacy emerges as a focal mediator of posttraumatic recovery. Verification of its independent contribution to posttraumatic recovery across a wide range of traumas lends support to the centrality of the enabling and protective function of belief in one's capability to exercise some measure of control over traumatic adversity.

  • Source
    • "Given that appraisals are integral in the development of PTSD, and negative appraisals are associated with poorer outcome, it is important to determine whether adaptive appraisals impact prognosis. For example, as negative beliefs regarding selfefficacy (i.e., personal weakness) are related to heightened symptoms (Benight and Bandura 2004), adaptive appraisals of self-efficacy (e.g., I will get over this) may protect against symptoms. There is currently no direct research on the impact of adaptive appraisals following trauma. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although both social support and cognitive appraisals are strong predictors of children’s posttraumatic adjustment, understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited. We assessed whether cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between social support and symptom development, as predicted by cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ninety seven children (Mean age = 12.08 years) were assessed at one month and six months following a single incident trauma. We administered self-report measures of cognitive appraisals, social support, and a diagnostic interview for PTSD. Results indicated that cognitive appraisals at one month post-trauma mediated the relationship between social support at one month post-trauma, and PTSD severity at follow-up. Differences in this relationship were observed between child-reported social support and parent-rated ability to provide support. Firm evidence was provided for the application of cognitive models of PTSD to children.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0034-7 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Participants reported the death of a close friend, significant other, and/or professor/teacher as a result of the shootings. Through merging aspects of SCT (Bandura, 1997; Benight & Bandura, 2004) and ABDT (Pyszczynski & Kesebir, 2011), we hypothesized that PTS would lead to more severe levels of persistent grief because it undermines self-efficacy and disrupts one's worldview. The overall model accounted for 61% of the variance in Time 2 grief severity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study tested a conceptual model merging anxiety buffer disruption and social– cognitive theories to predict persistent grief severity among students who lost a close friend, significant other, and/or professor/teacher in tragic university campus shootings. A regression-based path model tested posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom severity 3 to 4 months postshooting (Time 1) as a predictor of grief severity 1 year postshootings (Time 2), both directly and indirectly through cognitive processes (self-efficacy and disrupted worldview). Results revealed a model that predicted 61% of the variance in Time 2 grief severity. Hypotheses were supported, demonstrating that Time 1 PTS severity indirectly, positively predicted Time 2 grief severity through undermining self-efficacy and more severely disrupting worldview. Findings and theoretical interpretation yield important insights for future research and clinical application. Keywords: grief, self-efficacy, worldview, PTSD, trauma, violence
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 03/2015; 7(2):179-186. DOI:10.1037/tra0000002 · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Longer follow-up studies should examine whether mental health benefits endure, and whether and how they may translate into improved physical health. Also helpful would be a fuller understanding of MRP impacts on multiple facets of PTSD-related coping, such as ability to draw on positive forms of religious/spiritual coping (Park, 2007), and perceived self-efficacy for managing employment, interpersonal relationships, and physical disabilities (Benight & Bandura, 2004). Finally, studies should investigate whether MRP fosters an increased sense of meaning and purpose, qualities that Fontana and Rosenheck (2004) suggested may be supplied by spiritual interventions, and are especially needed by many veterans with PTSD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health condition that affects physical health. However, many military veterans with PTSD refuse or drop out of commonly used trauma-focused, evidence-based treatments. Growing research supports the value of spiritual components in diverse types of health care interventions. This study investigated the effects of the Mantram Repetition Program (MRP) on self-efficacy for managing PTSD symptoms. Outpatient veterans with PTSD (n = 132) were recruited through referrals, and were primarily male (98%), non-Hispanic white (59%) or black (23%), with mean age 58 years (SD = 9). Participants were randomized to case management plus MRP, or to case management alone. MRP participants chose a short, sacred phrase from a spiritual tradition (e.g., "Jesus," "Barukh attah Adonai," "Om mani padme hum"), repeating the phrase silently throughout the day to interrupt unwanted thoughts and behaviors, and to improve concentration and attention. Self-efficacy was assessed weekly, and participants were assessed at baseline (Week 1) and postintervention (Week 6) for PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, mental health, and spiritual well-being. Results revealed that MRP group self-efficacy means as well as treatment effects showed approximately linear weekly increases from baseline to postintervention. Treatment effects on self-efficacy were significant (p < .01), and mediated treatment effects on depression, mental health, spiritual well-being, satisfaction with physical health, and both self-reported and clinician-assessed PTSD symptoms (all ps < .05). We concluded that MRP fosters self-efficacy for managing PTSD symptoms, favorably affecting diverse facets of well-being, and that physical health effects merit investigation.
    Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 02/2015; 7(1):34-45. DOI:10.1037/a0037994 · 1.76 Impact Factor
Show more


Available from