Social cognitive theory of traumatic recovery: The role of perceived self-efficacy

University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO 8093-7150, USA.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 11/2004; 42(10):1129-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2003.08.008
Source: PubMed


The present article integrates findings from diverse studies on the generalized role of perceived coping self-efficacy in recovery from different types of traumatic experiences. They include natural disasters, technological catastrophes, terrorist attacks, military combat, and sexual and criminal assaults. The various studies apply multiple controls for diverse sets of potential contributors to posttraumatic recovery. In these different multivariate analyses, perceived coping self-efficacy emerges as a focal mediator of posttraumatic recovery. Verification of its independent contribution to posttraumatic recovery across a wide range of traumas lends support to the centrality of the enabling and protective function of belief in one's capability to exercise some measure of control over traumatic adversity.

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    • "High self-efficacy has been found to be associated with a sense of control, positive cognitions about the self, good decision-making and the ability to manage one's feelings (Benight and Cieslak 2011), as well as a smaller likelihood of experiencing depression and anxiety. When dealing with a traumatic event, self-efficacy is the person's belief in her ability to cope with the consequences and demands of this event (Benight and Bandura 2004). Cognitive-emotional regulation involves cognitive processes that trigger a change in one's reaction to stressors by regulating and managing feelings and emotions (Garnefski et al. 2001). "
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    • "Interventions aimed at bolstering self-efficacy may enable meaning making and grief processing associated with traumatic losses. As a target for posttraumatic intervention (Benight & Bandura, 2004), self-efficacy can be molded through (a) mastery experiences, (b) vicarious learning, (c) reappraising affective and physiological reactivity, and (d) verbal encouragement (Bandura, 1997). Interventions that address PTS symptoms and bolster self-efficacy may enable integration of traumatic events and losses within meaning systems, thereby attenuating negative longer-term mental health outcomes. "
    • "Specifically, 46.1% (n = 47) reported being choked, 30.4% (n = 31) reported being physically forced to have sexual intercourse, and 29.4% (n = 30) reported being threatened with a knife or gun. Women reported levels of coping self-efficacy comparable to other samples of PV survivors (e.g., Benight et al., 2004), with DVCSE scores that ranged from 6 to 93 (M = 53.76, SD = 21.70). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research indicates self-efficacy may function as a protective factor for survivors of partner violence (PV), including coping self-efficacy specific to domestic violence. We hypothesized that domestic violence coping self-efficacy would moderate the association between recent PV and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of incarcerated women, such that the association between PV and PTSD would be strongest at low levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. Participants (N = 102) were incarcerated women who reported PV in the year prior to incarceration. They were aged 19-55 years (M = 33.57, SD = 9.32), identified predominantly as European American (84.3%), American Indian (15.7%), and Hispanic (14.7%), with 80.4% completing high school or more in terms of education. Participants responded to self-report measures of PV, trauma history, domestic violence coping self-efficacy, and current PTSD symptoms. In a series of sequential regression analyses, PV (β = .65, sr(2) = .06, p = .017) was significantly associated with current PTSD symptoms above and beyond past trauma history (β = .37, sr(2) = .14, p < .001), and this association was moderated by domestic violence coping self-efficacy (Domestic Violence Coping Self-Efficacy × Partner Violence; β = -.54, sr(2) = .03, p = .044). The relationship between PV and PTSD symptoms was greatest at low and average levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy and nonsignificant at high levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing domestic violence coping self-efficacy in incarcerated women with recent PV, given that domestic violence coping self-efficacy appeared to be protective against symptoms of PTSD.
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 09/2015; 28(5). DOI:10.1002/jts.22034 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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