Article

Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P‐glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco‐2 cells

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
British Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.99). 11/2004; 143(3):379-87. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0705804
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Extracts of bitter melon, soybean, dokudami and welsh onion by 40% methanol increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 by Caco-2 cells, suggesting that these extracts inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The extract of bitter melon was separated in a tC18 cartridge column and the eluate from 80% acetonitrile most markedly increased the [(3)H]-daunomycin accumulation by Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were isolated by HPLC with Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. The inhibitory activities of 1-monopalmitin and its related compounds suggested that the inhibition of P-gp activity was not dependent on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in the monoglyceride, but on the chain length. It was also suggested that the monoglyceride structure played an important role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Monoglycerides could therefore alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs by inhibiting the P-gp-mediated efflux.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Hiromichi Nagasawa, Jun 18, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    New Advances in the Basic and Clinical Gastroenterology, 04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0521-3
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bitter melon, the fruit of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), is a widely-used treatment for diabetes in traditional medicine systems throughout the world. Various compounds have been shown to be responsible for this reputed activity, and, in particular, cucurbitane triterpenoids are thought to play a significant role. The objective of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal transport of a triterpenoid-enriched n-butanol extract of M. charantia using a two-compartment transwell human intestinal epithelial cell Caco-2 monolayer system, simulating the intestinal barrier. Eleven triterpenoids in this extract were transported from the apical to basolateral direction across Caco-2 cell monolayers, and were identified or tentatively identified by HPLC-TOF-MS. Cucurbitane triterpenoids permeated to the basolateral side with apparent permeability coefficient (P app) values for 3-β-7-β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al and momordicines I and II at 9.02 × 10(-6), 8.12 × 10(-6), and 1.68 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively. Also, small amounts of these triterpenoids were absorbed inside the Caco-2 cells. This is the first report of the transport of the reputed antidiabetic cucurbitane triterpenoids in human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. Our findings, therefore, further support the hypothesis that cucurbitane triterpenoids from bitter melon may explain, at least in part, the antidiabetic activity of this plant in vivo.
    Planta Medica 07/2014; 80(11):907-11. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1382837
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE) and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was given. APE and andrographolide reduced the AUC0-12 h of tolbutamide by 37% and 18%, respectively, compared with that in controls. The protein and mRNA levels and enzyme activities of CYP2C6/11, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A1/2 were increased by APE and andrographolide. To evaluate whether APE or andrographolide affected the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were used and treated in the same manner as the rats. APE and andrographolide increased CYP2C6/11 expression and decreased plasma tolbutamide levels. In a glucose tolerance test, however, the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide was not changed by APE or andrographolide. These results suggest that APE and andrographolide accelerate the metabolism rate of tolbutamide through increased expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. APE and andrographolide, however, do not impair the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2013; 2013:982689. DOI:10.1155/2013/982689