'Protective premedication': An option with gabapentin and related drugs? A review of gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of post-operative pain

Department of Anaesthesiology, Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica (Impact Factor: 2.32). 11/2004; 48(9):1130-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00484.x
Source: PubMed


Substantial progress has been made during the last decades in our understanding of acute pain mechanisms, and this knowledge has encouraged the search for novel treatments. Of particular interest has been the observation that tissue injury initiates a number of modulations of both the peripheral and the central pain pathways, which convert the system from a 'physiological' to a 'pathological' mode of processing afferent information. Gabapentin, which binds to the alpha(2)delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, is active in animal models of 'pathological' but not in models of 'physiological' pain. Consequently, attention has so far been focused on neuropathic pain as a target for the clinical use of gabapentin and analogues. Recently, several reports have indicated that gabapentin may have a place in the treatment of post-operative pain. This article presents a brief summary of the potential mechanisms of post-operative pain, and a systematic review of the available data of gabapentin and pregabalin for post-operative analgesia. It is concluded that the results with gabapentin and pregabalin in post-operative pain treatment published so far are promising. It is suggested that future studies should explore the effects of 'protective premedication' with combinations of various antihyperanalgesic and analgesic drugs for post-operative analgesia.

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    • "Pregabalin is claimed to be more effective in preventing neuropathic component of acute nociceptive pain of surgery, to produce more opioid sparing effect and for amelioration of perioperative anxiety.[22] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Preemptive analgesia is an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered processing of afferent input. Pregabalin has been claimed to be more effective in preventing neuropathic component of acute nociceptive pain of surgery. We conducted a study to compare the effect of oral gabapentin and pregabalin with control group for post-operative analgesia Materials and Methods: A total of 90 ASA grade I and II patients posted for elective gynecological surgeries were randomized into 3 groups (group A, B and C of 30 patients each). One hour before entering into the operation theatre the blinded drug selected for the study was given with a sip of water. Group A- received identical placebo capsule, Group B- received 600mg of gabapentin capsule and Group C — received 150 mg of pregabalin capsule. Spinal anesthesia was performed at L3-L4 interspace and a volume of 3.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy injected over 30sec through a 25 G spinal needle. VAS score at first rescue analgesia, mean time of onset of analgesia, level of sensory block at 5min and 10 min interval, onset of motor block, total duration of analgesia and total requirement of rescue analgesia were observed as primary outcome. Hemodynamics and side effects were recorded as secondary outcome in all patients. Results: A significantly longer mean duration of effective analgesia in group C was observed compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The mean duration of effective analgesia in group C was 535.16 ± 32.86 min versus 151.83 ± 16.21 minutes in group A and 302.00 ± 24.26 minutes in group B. The mean numbers of doses of rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours in group A, B and C was 4.7 ± 0.65, 4.1 ±0.66 and 3.9±0.614. (P value <0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that preemptive use of gabapentin 600mg and pregabalin 150 mg orally significantly reduces the postoperative rescue analgesic requirement and increases the duration of postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing elective gynecological surgeries under spinal anesthesia
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 07/2014; 30(3):373-7. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.137270
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    • "The pathogenesis of postoperative pain includes inflammatory, neurogenic, and visceral mechanisms. In these mechanisms Dahl et al. [2] suggest that a transient or reversible type of neuropathic pain plays a major role in postoperative pain. This may explain why gabapentin and pregabalin, commonly used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, are effective for controlling postoperative pain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Pregabalin is used to treat neuropathic pain and has shown analgesic properties in postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of pregabalin in reducing postoperative pain in patients after septoplasty. Methods Forty-seven patients scheduled for elective septoplasty were randomly assigned to groups that received either pregabalin (150 mg) or placebo, both one hour before surgery and 12 hours after the initial dose. Pain (verbal numerical rating scale, VNRS) and side effect assessments were performed at 6, 12, 12 to 24, and 24 to 48 hours postoperatively. Results From 1 to 12 hours postoperatively, VNRS scores for pain were lower in the pregabalin group (n=24) than in the placebo group (n=23; P<0.05). The number of patients who needed rescue analgesics was lower in the pregabalin group (P=0.042). The incidence of nausea and vomiting did not differ between groups (P=0.666), and the incidence of sedation was higher in the placebo groups (P=0.022). Conclusion The perioperative administration of oral pregabalin (150 mg twice) is an effective and safe way to reduce early postoperative pain in patients undergoing septoplasty.
    Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology 06/2014; 7(2):102-5. DOI:10.3342/ceo.2014.7.2.102 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    • "It is an anticonvulsant whose side effects are well tolerated and well absorbed after oral administration with the maximal plasma concentration seen after two to three hours [2, 6]. Some of the most commonly reported side effects of gabapentin include dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, ataxia, and peripheral edema [4, 7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gabapentin (1-aminomethyl-cyclohexaneacetic acid) is an amino acid that has the structure of the neurotransmitter γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is a novel drug used for the treatment of postoperative pain with antihyperalgesic properties and a unique mechanism of action. Gabapentin and the related, more potent compound pregabalin have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic pain as well as postoperative pain following spinal surgery and hysterectomy. This study reviews five aspects of gabapentin: (1) chemical and structural characteristics; (2) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; (3) application in acute pain management; (4) adverse effects; and (5) drug safety. Overall, gabapentin has been reported to be a safe and efficacious drug for the treatment of postoperative pain.
    04/2014; 2014(3):631756. DOI:10.1155/2014/631756
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