Features and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis type 2 presenting with isolated positivity for anti-liver cytosol antibody.
ABSTRACT Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 2 is identified by the presence in the serum of anti-liver/kidney microsome type 1 autoantibody. Anti-liver cytosol autoantibody has been reported in children with autoimmune liver disorders mostly in association with anti-liver/kidney microsome reactivity. However, its role as a sole marker of AIH type 2 is debated. We describe here a series of 18 children and adolescents (15 girls, 3 boys) with AIH with serum anti-liver cytosol type 1 (aLC1) as the only autoimmune marker.
A retrospective review was conducted from 3 pediatric hepatology units of all children with an autoimmune liver disease associated with aLC1 as found by immunofluorescence and/or immunodiffusion or immunoblotting.
Age at first symptoms ranged from 11 months to 14 years; 12 children presented with acute hepatitis, 1 with progressive jaundice, and 5 were asymptomatic. Anti-liver/kidney microsome, antimitochondria, and anti-actin autoantibodies were not detected. Signs of cirrhosis were present in 11 children. Immunosuppressive treatment was effective in all except 2 children who had subfulminant hepatic failure and who required liver transplantation. Sixteen patients (14 with their native liver) currently are alive; 14 patients still are on immunosuppressive therapy after 1 to 22 years. According to the international scoring system for the diagnosis of AIH, 16 patients corresponded to a definite diagnosis and 2 corresponded to a probable diagnosis.
The presence of aLC1 in children with acute or chronic liver disease of unknown origin strongly supports a diagnosis of AIH and is an indication for early immunosuppressive therapy.
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ABSTRACT: In the past 10 years we have examined 20 children with inflammatory liver disease associated with high serum titers of anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody (anti-LKM). The first hepatic symptoms were progressive fatigue and jaundice, the fortuitous finding of hepatomegaly or splenomegaly with raised transaminase activity, or an acute hepatitis-like illness. At the time of diagnosis, hepatomegaly was present in 18 children, splenomegaly in 16, jaundice in nine, and ascites in two. Serum alanine transferase activities were elevated in all but two, who had already received steroids. Serum total gammaglobulin values were greater than 2.0 gm/dl in 16 children, prothrombin activity less than or equal to 60% in six, and serum titer of anti-LKM between 1:100 and 1:100,000. All children but one had cirrhosis, and histologic signs of aggressivity were present in 14. In 11 children one or more extrahepatic diseases were present, including type 1 diabetes, vitiligo, glomerulonephritis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism, autoimmune thyroiditis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with hypoparathyroidism, and multiple cutaneous and visceral telangiectasias. Treatment with prednisone and azathioprine improved the liver condition in 16 of the 18 patients given treatment. In eight of them discontinuation of treatment resulted in rapid relapse; 14 are still receiving treatment and have stable hepatic function with follow-up from 8 months to 6 1/2 years. Only two are free of treatment. Four children died, two in spite of immunosuppressive therapy, one during a relapse, and one of extrahepatic disease. These results indicate that this autoimmune inflammatory liver disease may have onset early in life, with several clinical patterns; is frequently associated with certain types of extrahepatic manifestations of autoimmune origin; and is a potentially fatal disease for which immunosuppressive treatment must be started early.Journal of Pediatrics 04/1986; 108(3):399-404. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seventeen children with chronic active hepatitis and high serum titers of smooth-muscle or liver-kidney microsomal antibodies were given prednisone and azathioprine. Clinical and biochemical remission was obtained in all but two, who died of progressive liver failure. Evaluations in 14 children after a mean period of 22 months of treatment showed normal transaminase activity and gammaglobulin levels in 12, and serum autoantibody titers of less than 1: 100 in 10; liver histologic findings showed absence of inflammation in seven children, moderate portal or lobular inflammation in five, and minor features of aggressivity in two. Cessation of therapy was then attempted in nine children. Relapse occurred in all but one and could not be attributed to any previously recorded biologic or histologic feature. After follow-up of 18 months to 7 years, all but two patients are still receiving maintenance therapy with prednisone and azathioprine. Cirrhosis was present before treatment in 13 children and is now present in all but one. These results suggest that in most children with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, immunosuppressive therapy can prevent further deterioration of liver function but must be pursued for several years before discontinuation is attempted.Journal of Pediatrics 07/1984; 104(6):839-44. · 4.04 Impact Factor
- Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 12/1996; 23(4):461-5. · 2.20 Impact Factor